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Women’s History Month – Transcribing 19th-Century Friendship Letters

By Anamartha Hinojosa 

Letter, To: “My Dear Sarah,” June 29, 1818.

Transcribing letters from archives can transport you to the not-so-distant past. Although society inevitably changes, the continuity of human experiences remains. I learned this while working with Spanish letters from the Barry-Hayes papers in Villanova’s Digital Library. As a native Spanish speaker, I jumped at the opportunity to translate nineteenth-century letters that had gone unnoticed. Together with Rebecca Oviedo, Distinctive Collections Librarian/ Archivist, and Micaela Miralles-Bianconi, a history graduate from the class of 2021, we were able to transcribe and translate letters received by Philadelphian Sarah Barry Hayes (1798-1821), who was the great-niece of Commodore John Barry (1745-1803). Most of the Spanish letters Sarah received were love letters written by Joseph Moran, who was from Cuba. The letters contained remarks of youthful affection, yearning caused by long distance, and even jealousy at times; all of which sound so relatable. This project shed light on both the Latinx presence in the Northeast and the development of an intercultural relationship, as well as the ordinary life of a young socialite in the 1800s.

Once the Spanish letters were finished, I was introduced to another important person in Sarah’s life, her dearest friend Harriet Cottringer (1799-1865). It appears that Harriet and Sarah became close friends in Philadelphia and remained friends after Harriet moved to Alexandria, Virginia. Bridget Cullen Cottringer (Harriet’s mother) decided to open a boarding school in Alexandria with her five daughters (Caroline, Harriet, Ann, Cornelia, and Betsy) after her husband, Garrett Cottringer (1759-1816), passed away. It was truly incredible to see these women take matters into their own hands and succeed on their own. In a letter to Sarah, Harriet wrote, “I would not exchange situations with the happiest bride in the world, and I am convinced I am happier than many of them although I labour for my daily bread” (vudl:161670).

The letters Harriet wrote to Sarah were my favorite to transcribe because it was like opening a chat between two best friends frozen in time. Although we only have one side of the conversation, its vivid content nevertheless provides a descriptive account of their friendship. Harriet and Sarah discuss what any twenty-year-old would with their best friend: their day-to-day, fun activities, meeting up with friends, attending parties, boys, gossip, and of course, how much they mean to each other.

My favorite part of transcribing letters is researching the people mentioned in them. Thankfully, Harriet talks about a lot of people in her letters to Sarah. Sometimes it is easy to identify the person – through a Google search or websites like Find a Grave – when Harriet writes details such as their full name, where they are from, or who are their acquaintances. It is also helpful that Harriet and Sarah associate with well-known families like the Lee’s (as in Robert E. Lee). Notably, Harriet and her sisters are mentioned several times in the diary of Charles Francis Adams, the son of President John Quincy Adams. However, sometimes we are not as lucky and cannot identify the individual when only a first name or last name is given; even more so when Harriet and Sarah began writing names in code. It seems that they came up with code names while they were visiting each other. The code names appear to be for men because they say, “Wax came to Exeter…we have seen him several times, he looks quite well,” “Chicken is also a constant visitor, he inquires constantly if we have heard from our friends in Philadelphia,” and “Sponge joined us…he has his right arm in a sling” (vudl:161775). Although it is frustrating that we may never know who they were talking about, I find it so amusing to visualize Harriet and Sarah laughing while using these code names.

It is evident through Harriet’s letters that Harriet and Sarah had a beautiful friendship. Their constant letters attest that they were each other’s best friend and confidant. In one letter Harriet wrote, “I cherish you in my heart and look forward to a happier day when we shall again be united in that friendship which has subsisted between us so long and which I hope will continue to the end of our lives. In your next letter I shall expect a minute detail of every thing relating to you and your family” (vudl:161540). They also deeply cared for one another. On one occasion there was a rumor going around in Philadelphia that Harriet was engaged to a Mr. Morgan, so Harriet wrote to Sarah, “I must employ you as a friend to contradict it most positively whenever you hear it mentioned, for I assure it is entirely false” (vudl:161660). Sadly, this friendship was cut short because Sarah died at the age of 23 in 1821. But her memory lived on because Harriet was married in 1824 and named one of her daughters Sarah Hayes Brent (1830-1862) in honor of her dear friend.

For more on the Spanish love letters, check out Rebecca Oviedo’s Archival Outlook article: https://mydigitalpublication.com/publication/?i=715946. The letters referenced above can all be found in Series VII: Sarah Barry Hayes in the Digital Library.

 


Anamartha Hinojosa is an M.A. student in History at Villanova University. 

 

 


 


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Dig Deeper: Villanova Theatre Presents The Revolutionists

By Jenna Renaud

“I write plays that I like to describe as having endings with hard hope…It makes the characters and hopefully the audience want to keep fighting, keep going, keep living, and keep learning at the end of the play.”
Lauren Gunderson 

The Revolutionists: A Villanova Theatre Production

Villanova Theatre is back for the spring semester with its newest comedy production, The Revolutionists. The show runs Feb. 1020 in the Court Theatre housed in the John and Joan Mullen Center for the Performing Arts. The show is written by Lauren Gunderson and directed by Valerie Joyce. 

The Cincinnati Inquirer describes The Revolutionists as follows: In the shadow of an overworked guillotine, four badass women collide and collude in Paris during the Reign of Terror: fugitive queen Marie Antoinette, idealist assassin Charlotte Corday, Caribbean spy Marianne Angelle, and beleaguered playwright Olympe de Gouges (who just wants to make the plot work out). Lauren Gunderson’s breakneck comedy of ideas is a fiercely funny fever dream as well as a timely rumination on the role of violence in the quest for change, a “sassy, hold-on-to-your-seats theatrical adventure.” 

Dig Deeper into The Revolutionists 

Women and the French Revolution 

Photo provided by Kimberly Reilly & Villanova Theatre

The French Revolution took place from May 1789 to November 1799 and is considered one of the largest and bloodiest upheavals in European history. French citizens eliminated the absolute monarchy and feudal system and created an entirely new political and social framework. Following the death of the King, a radical group called the Jacobins took over, ushering France into what would be later known as “The Reign of Terror.” During that time, they murdered over 17,000 people. In 1795, a new, relatively moderate constitution was adopted and opposition was stopped through the use of the French army, led by Napoleon Bonaparte. Political corruption and unrest continued until 1799 when Napoleon staged a coup to declare himself France’s “first consul.”

During the time of the French Revolution, women began to speak up and fought for their own rights. Following the storming of the Bastille in 1789, women began to join in riots, demonstrate for their rights, and attend the political clubs of men. Although there was no major change regarding the rights of women following the Revolution, they made their presence known and are depicted in the majority of revolutionary art for being symbols of revolutionary values. 

Dig Deeper into Women and the French Revolution 


Jenna Renaud is a Graduate Assistant in Falvey Memorial Library and a Graduate Student in the Communication Department.


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View a Replica of The Lincoln Bible This Presidents’ Day

Image of the Lincoln Bible replica.

Replica of The Lincoln Bible.

This Presidents’ Day, stop by Falvey Memorial Library’s first floor to view a replica of “The Lincoln Bible.” Used during his inauguration in 1861, the Lincoln Bible didn’t actually belong to the President. The clerk of the Supreme Court, William Thomas Carroll, was the owner of the Bible Lincoln placed his hand upon. The Bible remained in Carroll’s possession until it was acquired by the Lincoln family sometime after the president’s assassination in 1865. Now known as “The Lincoln Bible,” the original copy is currently housed in the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C. The Lincoln Bible was used by President Barack Obama at his inaugurations in 2009 and 2013. President Donald Trump also used the Bible at his inauguration in 2017.

The replica mirrors The Lincoln Bible as it appeared in 1861, as it was not possible to duplicate the wear and fading of the original copy. More features of the replica are listed below:

  • 280-page, 1853 Oxford University Edition.
  • Inscription of William Thomas Carroll, complete with the seal of the Supreme Court.
  • Velvet-covered; framed with brass borders and has a brass clasp, authentic gilded edges, and two ribbon markers.

The Lincoln Bible will be on display in the Library’s first floor Wednesday, Feb. 16, through Monday, Feb. 28.

Mary Lincoln gave the Bible to the Rev. Noyes W. Miner, a friend of the President, seven years after her husband’s death. Having been passed down through the generations, Miner’s descendants recently disclosed its existence and donated it to the public.

For more on President Lincoln, whose 213th birthday is Feb. 12, check out the links below:

Looking for a specific resource on President Lincoln? Contact, Jutta Seibert, History Librarian. A special thank you to Andrew McKeough, ’19 CLAS for the exhibit concept.


Kallie Stahl ’17 MA is Communication and Marketing Specialist at Falvey Memorial Library.

 

 


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Weekend Recs: SCOTUS

By Jenna Renaud

Happy Friday, Wildcats! After a year off, Falvey Memorial Library is bringing back Weekend Recs, a blog dedicated to filling you in on what to read, listen to, and watch over the weekend. Jenna, a graduate assistant from the Communication department, scours the internet, peruses the news, and digs through book stacks to find new, relevant, and thought-provoking content that will challenge you and prepare you for the upcoming week. 

If you’ve read any news the past three days, you may have seen the rumors that SCOTUS justice Stephen Breyer may be retiring, leading to the fourth new appointment in the last five years and Biden’s first. It can be difficult to keep up with everything in the political sphere, so this week I’ll be providing a range of podcasts, articles, videos, movies, and books to help you get a better understanding of the Supreme Court and what’s currently going on in the news, whether you have 4 minutes or 12 hours! 

If you have 4 minutes… read the latest on Justice Stephen Breyer’s alleged retirement and how Biden could make history with his new appointment, if it reaches that stage. 

If you have 4 minutes and 30 seconds… watch this video breaking down how U.S. Supreme Court justices get appointed to get a better understanding of the process the U.S. government may be going through real soon.

If you have 39 minutes… listen to the most recent episode of the SCOTUS 101 podcast, a podcast breaking down the latest news from the Supreme Court.  

If you have 1 hour and 28 minutes… watch RBG on Netflix. The 2018 documentary on the life of Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg’s life and work on woman’s human rights. 

If you have 12 hours and 30 minutes… read The Nine: Inside the Secret World of the Supreme Court by Jeffrey Toobin. Although published in 2008, this book still offers an inside look at the inner workings of the Super Court and how justices make decisions.  


jenna newman headshotJenna Renaud is a Graduate Assistant in Falvey Memorial Library and a Graduate Student in the Communication Department.


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Peek at the Week: January 18

By Jenna Renaud

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Word of the Week: Agelast 

(noun) a person who never laughs  

Okay, so maybe 2022 hasn’t started off exactly like we thought it would but try to keep a sense of humor as we move into in the new year to keep yourself from becoming an agelast. To help keep the humor alive this year, I’ve compiled some of the worst jokes about January that I could find. 

Q: Where do storm troopers go to warm up on cold January days? 

A: The Darth Mall. 

Q: What is the first month of the year in Transylvania? 

A: Janu-eerie. 

Q: What can you catch in the winter with your eyes closed? 

A: A cold. 

Q: What happened to the woman who stole a calendar on New Year’s Day? 

A: She got 12 months! 


This Week at Falvey  

Tuesday, January 18th 

Martin Luther King Jr. Keynote Address / 7–8:30 p.m. / Virtual  

Peace and Justice Education will host the annual Martin Luther King Jr. Keynote Address, delivered by Winona LaDuke, Harvard-educated economist, environmental activist, and author who specializes in rural development; economic, food, and energy sovereignty; and environmental justice.  

Thursday, January 20th 

The Freedom School will offer hour-long, online sessions hosted by various faculty members, staff, and students that relate to and extend the vision of Dr. King. The sessions will be hosted at 10 a.m., 11:30 a.m., 1 p.m., and 2:30 p.m. 


This Week in History 

January 22nd, 1998 – Ted Kaczynski, the “Unabomber,” pleads guilty to bombings 

Theodore J. Kaczynski is currently serving a life sentence in a maximum-security prison in Colorado after pleading guilty to all federal charges regarding the “Unabomber” bombings. 

The “Unabomber” primarily targeted universities, although he also placed a bomb on an American Airlines flight and send one to the president of United Airlines. Federal investigators set up the UNABOM Task Force (a combination of university and airline) leading the media to give the man the name “Unabomber.” 

To read more about Ted Kaczynski, his history, and how he was caught, read this article from History.com. 

History.com Editors. (2010, October 04). Ted Kaczynski Pleads Guilty. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/ted-kaczynski-pleads-guilty-to-bombings 


jenna newman headshotJenna Renaud is a Graduate Assistant in Falvey Memorial Library and a Graduate Student in the Communication Department.


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Maya Angelou Becomes First Black Woman on a Quarter

By Jenna Renaud

Photo courtesy of the New York Times / Chester Higgins Jr.

The U.S. Mint has announced that on Monday, Jan. 10 they began shipping quarters featuring poet Maya Angelou.  

This quarter represents the first in the American Women Quarters Program. This Mint program will take place over four years and includes issuing five quarters a year to honor women in fields, including women’s suffrage, Civil Rights, abolition, government, humanities, science, and the arts.  

Women to be featured in 2022 include physicist and first woman astronaut Sally Ride; Wilma Mankiller, the first female principal chief of the Cherokee Nation; Nina Otero-Warren, a leader in New Mexico’s suffrage movement and the first female superintendent of Santa Fe public schools; and Anna May Wong, the first Chinese American film star in Hollywood. 

Photo courtesy of the Washington Post.

Women have previously been featured on coins, although never the quarter. In 2017 the Mint introduced a commemorative gold coin featuring Lady Liberty as a Black woman. Suffragist Susan B. Anthony was the first to be featured on a coin in circulation when silver dollars were released with her image in 1979. Other women featured on currency include writer and activist for the disabled Helen Keller and Sacagawea, the Shoshone woman who helped Lewis and Clark across the plains.

Author, poet, and Civil Rights activist, Angelou rose to prominence with the publication of her autobiography I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings in 1969. She was honored with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2010 by President Barack Obama. Although having passed away in 2014 at the age of 86, Angelou’s impact and writings live on.

The quarter design depicts Angelou with outstretched arms and was created by Emily Damstra, a designer, and Craig A. Campbell, a medallic artist. Behind her is a bird in flight and a rising sun. Both of these selected images are inspired by her poetry and the way she lived her life. 

Below we have compiled a list of some of Maya Angelou’s most important and impactful pieces of work, all of which are available in Falvey’s collection: 

Click here to find a full list of Falvey’s collection of Maya Angelou pieces and make sure you are on the lookout for these quarters over the next four years. 


jenna newman headshotJenna Renaud is a Graduate Assistant in Falvey Memorial Library and a Graduate Student in the Communication Department.


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Peek at the Week: December 13

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Word of the Week: Allyship 

(noun) the status or role of a person who advocates and actively works for the inclusion of a marginalized or politicized group in all areas of society, not as a member of that group but in solidarity with its struggle and point of view and under its leadership 

Dictionary.com announced “allyship” as their 2021 word of the year on December 6. Speaking of their decision, dictionary.com says: 

“As our Word of the Year for 2021, allyship carries a special distinction this year: It marks the first time we’ve chosen a word that’s new to our dictionary as our Word of the Year. 

Our addition of the word allyship to our dictionary in 2021—not to mention our decision to elevate it as our top word for the year—captures important ways the word continues to evolve in our language and reflects its increased prominence in our discourse.” 

Read the full announcement here. 

Kelly, J. (2021, December 6). Dictionary.com’s 2021 word of the year is … Dictionary.com. Retrieved December 9, 2021, from https://www.dictionary.com/e/word-of-the-year/. 


This Week at Falvey  

Monday, Nov. 15–Friday, Jan. 7 

Cabinets of Curiosity Exhibit / Falvey First Floor / Free & Open to the Public 

Friday, Dec. 10–Friday, Dec. 17

Shevlin Family Foundation Donation Collection / Boxes on Falvey First Floor or Old Falvey Second-Floor Lobby  

Items such as individually wrapped cereal bars and snacks, blankets and new or gently used socks, hats, gloves, scarves (kid and adult sizes), and hygiene items will be gratefully accepted. 

Monday, Dec. 13–Friday, Dec. 17

Salty & Sweet Finals Pop-Up / Falvey First Floor  

As you’re studying in Falvey this week, be on the lookout for the Grinch and Buddy the Elf (and our student workers) so you can snag a grab-and-go finals treat while supplies last! 

Monday, Dec. 13th   

Mindfulness Mondays / 1–1:30 p.m. / Virtual / https://villanova.zoom.us/j/98337578849 


This Week in History 

December 17, 1903 – First airplane flies 

As we get ready to travel for the holidays, we can look back in history to 1907, the year Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first successful flight in history of a self-propelled, heavier-than-air aircraft near Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The plane stayed aloft for 12 seconds and covered 120 feet on its inaugural flight. 

The historic Wright brothers’ aircraft of 1903 is on permanent display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. 

A&E Television Networks. (2009, November 24). First airplane flies. History.com. Retrieved December 9, 2021, from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/first-airplane-flies. 


jenna newman headshotJenna Renaud is a Graduate Gssistant in Falvey Memorial Library and a Graduate Student in the Communication Department.


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Peek at the Week: December 6

By Jenna Renaud

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Word of the Week: Ninguid 

Although no longer used popularly, ninguid is derived from Latin and means “snow covered.” We have yet to have more than a sprinkling of snow this season, but I have a feeling snow’s right around the corner (or maybe I’m just hoping it is). I don’t think they’ll be changing the lyrics of the song to “I’m dreaming of a ninguid Christmas” anytime soon, but maybe you’ll be able to work this word into your holiday vocabulary this year! 


This Week at Falvey  

Monday, Nov. 15–Friday, Jan. 7

Cabinets of Curiosity Exhibit / Falvey First Floor / Free & Open to the Public 

Monday, Dec. 6 

Mindfulness Mondays / 1–1:30 p.m. / Virtual / https://villanova.zoom.us/j/98337578849 

Friday, Dec. 10

Stress-less Healthy Happy Hour Event Featuring Pals for Life Therapy Animals / 4–5 p.m. / Room 205 / Free & Open to all Villanova Students 


This Week in History 

December 8, 1980 – John Lennon shot 

On December 8, 1980, former Beatles member was shot and killed by an obsessed fan in New York City. Lennon was entering his Manhattan apartment when Mark David Chapman shot him at close range. Although rushed to the hospital, Lennon, bleeding profusely, died in route.  

Chapman stayed on scene until the police showed up and arrested him. When approached by police, Chapman was reading The Catcher in the Rye, which he referred to as his manifesto. Chapman has spent the last 41 years in prison, and even though he has been up for parole 11 times, he has been denied every time.  

If you want to reminisce more about the Beatles, watch the new Disney+ documentary series “The Beatles Get Back.” The series takes fans back in time to the band’s intimate recording sessions during a pivotal part in music history. 

A&E Television Networks. (2009, November 24). John Lennon is shot. History.com. Retrieved December 6, 2021, from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/john-lennon-shot. 


jenna newman headshotJenna Renaud is a graduate assistant in Falvey Memorial Library and a graduate student in the Communication Department.


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Peek at the Week: November 29

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Word of the Week: Air Fryer 

Each year Merriam-Webster dictionary adds new words and definitions to its dictionary, from slang to new science and tech jargon. This year, they have added 455 new words! We don’t have enough “Peeks” to cover the new words, but I decided to share one of the newly added words that also may make the perfect Cyber Monday shopping purchase. 

An air fryer is now defined by Merriam-Webster as, “an airtight, usually small electrical appliance for quick cooking of foods by means of convection currents circulated rapidly by a fan.” Although invented in 2010, in recent years air fryers have become more popular, leading to their addition. Other newly added food-related words include “fluffernutter” and “chicharron.”  


This Week at Falvey  

Monday, Nov. 15–Friday, Jan. 7

Cabinets of Curiosity Exhibit / Falvey First Floor / Free & Open to the Public 

Wednesday, Dec. 1

Fall 2021 Falvey Forum Workshop Series: Introduction to QGIS / 12:30–1:30 p.m. / Virtual / Register Here 

Friday, Dec. 3 

Villanova Gaming Society / 2:30–4:30 p.m. / Speakers’ Corner / Free & Open to the Public 


This Week in History 

Dec. 5, 1945 – Aircraft squadron disappears in the Bermuda Triangle 

On Dec. 5, 1945 at 2:10 p.m., five U.S. Navy Avenger torpedo-bombers took off from the Ft. Lauderdale Naval Air Station in Florida on a routine three-hour training mission. Two hours later, the squadron leader reported that his compass and back-up compass have both failed. The final communication heard over the radio was the squadron leader telling his team to prepare to leave the aircraft due to a lack of fuel.  

A mariner aircraft with a 13-men crew soon took off to find the five U.S. Navy Avenger torpedo-bombers, only to never be heard from again. Although naval officials maintained that the remains of the  men were not found because stormy weather destroyed the evidence, the story of the “Lost Squadron” helped cement the legend of the Bermuda Triangle.

Read more about the Bermuda Triangle here. 

A&E Television Networks. (2009, November 24). Aircraft squadron disappears in the Bermuda Triangle. History.com. Retrieved November 29, 2021, from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/aircraft-squadron-lost-in-the-bermuda-triangle. 


Jenna Renaud is a graduate assistant in Falvey Memorial Library and a graduate student in the Communication Department.


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Peek at the Week: November 22

By Jenna Renaud

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Recipe of the Week: Thanksgiving Pumpkin Dump Cake 

In lieu of a word of the week, we’re sharing an easy Thanksgiving recipe that you can try out this holiday season! For students (and just busy people), it can be difficult to find time to contribute to Thanksgiving, but you also don’t want to show up empty-handed. This recipe from Cookies & Cups by Shelley Jaronsky offers an easy solution! 

Prep Time: 10 minutes / Cook Time: 45 minutes / Serves 12 

Ingredients: 

1 (15 ounce) can pure pumpkin 

1 (10 ounce) can evaporated milk 

1 cup light brown sugar 

3 eggs 

3 teaspoons pumpkin pie spice 

1 box yellow cake mix 

1 cup (2 sticks) butter melted 

1 cup coarsely crushed graham crackers or pecans 

1/2 cup toffee bits (optional) 

Instructions: 

  1. Preheat oven to 350°F. Coat a 9×13 baking pan with nonstick spray and set aside. 
  2. In a large bowl combine the pumpkin, evaporated milk, sugar, eggs, and pumpkin pie spice. Stir to combine and pour into your prepared pan. 
  3. Sprinkle the entire box of cake mix on top, followed by your nuts or graham crackers and toffee chips. 
  4. Pour your melted butter evenly on top. 
  5. Bake for 45-50 minutes until center is set and edges are lightly browned. 
  6. Serve warm or at room temperature. 

 This Week at Falvey  

Monday, Nov. 22  

Mindfulness Mondays / 1–1:30 p.m. / Virtual / https://villanova.zoom.us/j/98337578849 


This Week in History 

Nov. 26, 1941–FDR establishes modern Thanksgiving holiday.

The following Thanksgiving information comes directly from History.com’s “This Week in History” post. 

“President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a bill officially establishing the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day.  

The tradition of celebrating the holiday on Thursday dates back to the early history of the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies, when post-harvest holidays were celebrated on the weekday regularly set aside as “Lecture Day,” a midweek church meeting where topical sermons were presented. A famous Thanksgiving observance occurred in the autumn of 1621, when Plymouth governor William Bradford invited local members of the Wampanoag tribe to join the Pilgrims in a festival held in gratitude for the bounty of the season. 

Thanksgiving became an annual custom throughout New England in the 17th century, and in 1777 the Continental Congress declared the first national American Thanksgiving following the Patriot victory at Saratoga. In 1789, President George Washington became the first president to proclaim a Thanksgiving holiday, when, at the request of Congress, he proclaimed November 26, a Thursday, as a day of national thanksgiving for the U.S. Constitution. However, it was not until 1863, when President Abraham Lincoln declared Thanksgiving to officially fall on the last Thursday of November, that the modern holiday was celebrated nationally.  

With a few deviations, Lincoln’s precedent was followed annually by every subsequent president—until 1939. In 1939, Franklin D. Roosevelt departed from tradition by declaring November 23, the next to last Thursday that year, as Thanksgiving Day. Considerable controversy surrounded this deviation, and some Americans refused to honor Roosevelt’s declaration. For the next two years, Roosevelt repeated the unpopular proclamation, but on November 26, 1941, he admitted his mistake and signed a bill into law officially making the fourth Thursday in November the national holiday of Thanksgiving Day.” 

A&E Television Networks. (2009, November 24). FDR proclaims Thanksgiving a national holiday. History.com. Retrieved November 18, 2021, from https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-establishes-modern-thanksgiving-holiday. 


jenna newman headshotJenna Renaud is a graduate student in the Communication Department and graduate assistant in Falvey Memorial Library.


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Last Modified: November 22, 2021