Skip Navigation
Falvey Memorial Library
Advanced
You are exploring: Home > Blogs

Lessons Learned From a Robotic Snake Jaw: Meet Lauren Garofalo and Samantha Sandler, 2020 Falvey Scholars

By Shawn Proctor

This is part 3 of a 6-part series featuring the 2020 Falvey Scholars. Read more about them each Tuesday and Thursday, and in the upcoming issue of Mosaic, the library’s bi-annual publication.

Villanova “Wild Facts”

Lauren Garofalo ’20 (Mechanical Engineering)
Hometown: Egg Harbor Township, N.J.
Additional Honors: Magna Cum Laude, Kevin R. Scott ’85 Memorial Scholarship, Boeing Summer Business Institute Scholarship, Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society, Drexel GAANN Fellowship,
Samantha Sandler ’20 (Mechanical Engineering)
Hometown: Long Island, N.Y.
Additional Honors: Magna Cum Laude, Dean’s Award Recipient for Meritorious Service, Dr. Neville Distinguished Student Award, Tau Beta Pi Honor Society, Pi Tau Sigma Honor Society

Faculty Mentor:
Deeksha Seth, PhD, Assistant Teaching Professor
Research: “Evaluation of a Snake Jaw Robot to Teach Integrated Biology, Mathematics, and Engineering”

In Their Own Words

Their research:

Lauren Garofalo: We tested the effectiveness of robots as educational tools to teach integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects, ignite students’ interests in STEM and studying STEM in college, and increasing students’ feelings of belongingness within the STEM fields.
Samantha Sandler: Robots are a great educational medium because their integrated nature incorporate all features critical to design. The integrated aspects of design tend to spur the students’ ability to recognize the integrated nature of the subject matter itself. In the case of the snake jaw robot, the focus was the functionality of the quadrate bone, but the students recognized connections to degrees of freedom, angles of rotation, and forces.
By presenting a snake jaw robot and snake jaw video presentations, we were able to evaluate the performance of robotics compared to conventional educational techniques. The results of our study were that the robot performed significantly better in its ability to increase interest in STEM and recognize connections between natural phenomenon and engineering.
Falvey’s Impact on Their Work:
Lauren: Library staff helped me find the resources we needed to supplement preliminary research regarding state of the art of robotics as educational tools. The resources and databases helped us perform statistical analysis of our data. Since we used Likert-Scale questions in our survey, we needed to do some research on appropriate statistical testing to ensure meaningful, accurate results.
Samantha: The Falvey staff did a great job in presenting the resources available at the library, which greatly impacted my ability to access full publications of journal articles for free. The Library’s resources played a critical role in our ability to understand the currently practiced educational techniques and the impacts of integrated education. Additionally, the Library’s resources were very helpful for understanding the various methods of statistical analysis.
The Impact on Them:
Lauren: I am definitely still interested in pursuing robotics. Generally, I will be straying away from the educational component, but I am still interested in looking at robots as tools to help people.
Samantha: This project has helped me recognize my interests in product design and robotics. This research was a unique opportunity to combine my major in Mechanical Engineering with my minor in Engineering Entrepreneurship. I began this research particularly interested in evaluating the design of the robot with respect to the desired functionality. It was interesting because though the robot met all of the design criteria prompted by the customer at the Academy of Natural Sciences, our research allowed us to recognize features we would optimize in the future to better achieve the desired learning objectives. These results allowed us to recognize the importance of focusing on the desired impact of the product with respect to design and functional analysis.
What’s next:

Lauren: I am pursuing a doctorate in Mechanical Engineering at Drexel University, studying under Dr. James Tangorra.

Samantha: I will be working in Melbourne, Florida for L3Harris Technologies as a designer in the Space and Airborne Systems Sector.

Shawn ProctorShawn Proctor, MFA, is Communications and Marketing Program Manager at Falvey Memorial Library.

 

 


 


Like

An Eye on Salt Marsh Ecology: Meet Gabriella Bliss Giordano, 2020 Falvey Scholar

By Shawn Proctor

This is part 2 of a 6-part series featuring the 2020 Falvey Scholars. Read more about them each Tuesday and Thursday, and in the upcoming issue of Mosaic, the library’s bi-annual publication.

Villanova “Wild Facts”

Gabriella Bliss Giordano ’20 (Environmental Science and Geography)
Hometown: Massapequa, N.Y.
Additional Honors: Alexander Von Humboldt Medallion for Excellence in Geography, Magna Cum Laude, Gamma Theta Epsilon International Geography Honor Society

Project Title: “Spatial analysis of heavy metals in marsh soils and ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) from Plum Island Estuary, MA”

Mentor: Nathaniel Weston, PhD, Associate Professor

In Her Own Words

Her research:

For my senior thesis project, I analyzed the spatial distribution heavy metal concentrations in marsh soils and the endemic ribbed mussel geukensia demissa from the Plum Island Estuary in Massachusetts. This estuary is an intertidal riverine marsh with freshwater inputs and is the largest expanse of salt marsh in the Northeast.

After field collection, I hot acid digested samples and analyzed for metal content on an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

Overall, I found that soils did show decreasing trends with increasing distance from the fresh, river inputs.  On the other hand, the metal concentration in mussels was not described by soil concentrations and did not show a clear spatial pattern. Mussels were likely more influenced by size and would likely be more indicative of the metal in suspended sediment than in surficial sediment.

 

Falvey’s Impact on Her Work:

Over the course of my four years at Villanova, Falvey has been a huge help in my academics, from study spaces to staff to Holy Grounds coffee. By simply keeping the library operating and clean the staff has helped everyone in their research and academic experience. Over the course of my work on this project, I met with Librarian Alfred Fry to guide my literature search for both background reading and writing purposes. Being able to meet with someone in the library who specializes in scientific literature review is a very powerful resource.

In this online era, being able to navigate the internet for credible sources is extremely important. Falvey’s resources make it incredibly easy to search for articles and academic journals either directly through its website or through a number of databases. The wide range of databases, journals and publishers that Falvey provides to students is incredibly helpful. I became especially appreciative of all the online resources Falvey provides during this unprecedented time.

 

The Impact on Her and What’s Next:

I have been working with Dr. Weston since freshman year and always knew I wanted to continue my higher education and do research whether it was in salt marshes or not. After four years, I couldn’t part with the marshes and will be researching biogeochemistry and ecology of Georgia salt marshes in graduate school at the University of Georgia where I will be pursuing a Master’s in Marine Science. Dr. Weston and I are also hoping to continue working on my thesis for publication, which would include additional lab analyses and paper editing.

Shawn ProctorShawn Proctor, MFA, is Communications and Marketing Program Manager at Falvey Memorial Library.

 

 


 


Like

Balancing the Scales of Justice: Meet Brett Schratz, 2020 Falvey Scholar

By Shawn Proctor

This is part 1 of a 6-part series featuring the 2020 Falvey Scholars. Read more about them each Tuesday and Thursday, and in the upcoming issue of Mosaic, the library’s bi-annual publication.

“Wild Facts”

Brett Schratz ’20 (Political Science, Philosophy, Honors majors)
Hometown: Plymouth Meeting, PA

Faculty Mentor: Sally Scholz, PhD, Professor and Department Chair, Philosophy Department

Additional Honors: Phi Beta Kappa, 2020 College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Commencement Speaker, Helen S. Lang History of Philosophy Award, Phi Sigma Tau, Summa Cum Laude

Research: “Rawls on “The Hard Question” for LGBTQ Rights: Are Religious Exemptions Just?”

In His Own Words

Brett’s research:
A complex and contentious issue in political theory and even in our society is the inherent tension between liberty and equality. We especially see this in the case of religious exemptions from providing services to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (or queer) (LGBTQ) people. My research explores this sticky question by applying John Rawls’s theory of justice as fairness in the case of Fulton v. City of Philadelphia. I argue that religious exemptions are unjust and that they unduly harm LGBTQ equality, according to Rawls’s principles of justice.
Falvey’s Impact on His Work:
Before I decided to use John Rawls’s philosophy, I needed to explore a variety of thinkers before settling on one. Dr. Scholz and I used the librarians’ support to navigate the vast number of works to read and investigate further.
I used Falvey’s Philosophy subject guide, multiple databases, cross-loan book program, and the Philosopher’s Index to accumulate all my secondary literature. I managed to compile helpful and pertinent sources to add depth to my research.
The Impact on Him:
I plan on going to law school or onto a doctoral program. I hope to spend my career navigating these same issues in the legal system as well as in legal scholarship. However, I plan on expanding the scope of my research to other areas beyond LGBTQ rights.
The tension between liberty and equality can quickly turn hostile and I do not want to see religious liberty perverted into unjust discrimination.
What’s next:
I am joining the American Civil Liberties Union National as a Paralegal for their National Voting Rights Project. I will be working in public policy and affairs.

Shawn ProctorShawn Proctor, MFA, is Communications and Marketing Program Manager at Falvey Memorial Library.

 

 


 


Like

2020 Falvey Scholars: Lauren Garofalo and Samantha Sandler

 

Lauren Garofalo

Samantha Sandler

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Falvey Memorial Library is honored to announce the 2020 Falvey Scholar award winners. Celebrating Villnaova’s Senior Week, we will be showcasing the research of seven seniors each day this week (May 11-16). An annual program, sponsored by Falvey Library and the Center for Research and Fellowships, the Falvey Scholars program recognizes outstanding undergraduate research at Villanova University. The winners of the Falvey Scholar award are selected from a pool of candidates generated by applications submitted by a senior Villanova University student or a group of students working on a senior project together with the recommendation of the advisor to the senior thesis or capstone project completed for academic credit.

While we are saddened to have canceled this year’s in-person awards ceremony, the health and safety of the community in response to the global outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is paramount. As we cannot gather on campus, the 2020 Falvey Scholars have generously prepared short video presentations on their scholarship. Learn more about Falvey Scholar award winners, Lauren Garofalo and Samantha Sandler, in the clip below, and stay tuned for an in-depth profile on Garofalo and Sandler in the coming weeks.

Falvey Scholars: Lauren Garofalo and Samantha Sandler

Project Title: “Evaluation of a Snake Jaw Robot to Teach Integrated Biology, Mathematics, and Engineering”

Mentor: Dr. Deeksha Seth


Gina's headshotKallie Stahl ’17 MA is Communication and Marketing Specialist at Falvey Memorial Library. Regina Duffy is Communication and Marketing Program Manager at Falvey Memorial Library.

 

 


 


Like

2020 Falvey Scholars: Brett Schratz

Falvey Memorial Library is honored to announce the 2020 Falvey Scholar award winners. Celebrating Villanova’s Senior Week, we will be showcasing the research of seven seniors each day this week (May 11-16). An annual program, sponsored by the Library and the Center for Research and Fellowships, the Falvey Scholars program recognizes outstanding undergraduate research at Villanova University. The winners of the Falvey Scholar award are selected from a pool of candidates generated by applications submitted by a senior Villanova University student or a group of students working on a senior project together with the recommendation of the advisor to the senior thesis or capstone project completed for academic credit.

While we are saddened to have canceled this year’s in-person awards ceremony, the health and safety of the community in response to the global outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is paramount. As we cannot gather on campus, the 2020 Falvey Scholars have generously prepared short video presentations on their scholarship. Learn more about Falvey Scholar award winner, Brett Schratz, in the clip below, and stay tuned for an in-depth profile on Schratz in the coming weeks.

Falvey Scholar: Brett Schratz

Project Title: “Rawls on “The Hard Question” for LGBTQ Rights: Are Religious Exemptions Just?”

Mentor: Professor Sally Scholz, PhD


Gina's headshotKallie Stahl ’17 MA is Communication and Marketing Specialist at Falvey Memorial Library. Regina Duffy is Communication and Marketing Program Manager at Falvey Memorial Library.

 

 


 


Like
1 People Like This Post

2020 Falvey Scholars: Josephine Papotto

Falvey Memorial Library is honored to announce the 2020 Falvey Scholar award winners. Celebrating Villanova’s Senior Week, we will be showcasing the research of seven seniors each day this week (May 11-16). An annual program, sponsored by the Library and the Center for Research and Fellowships, the Falvey Scholars program recognizes outstanding undergraduate research at Villanova University. The winners of the Falvey Scholar award are selected from a pool of candidates generated by applications submitted by a senior Villanova University student or a group of students working on a senior project together with the recommendation of the advisor to the senior thesis or capstone project completed for academic credit.

While we are saddened to have canceled this year’s in-person awards ceremony, the health and safety of the community in response to the global outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is paramount. As we cannot gather on campus, the 2020 Falvey Scholars have generously prepared short video presentations on their scholarship. Learn more about Falvey Scholar award winner, Josephine Papotto, in the clip below, and stay tuned for an in-depth profile on Papotto in the coming weeks.

Falvey Scholar: Josephine Papotto

Project Title: “Temporal Variability and Spatial Controls on Sediment Chemistry in Three Puerto Rico Watersheds”

Mentor: Associate Professor Steven Goldsmith, PhD


Gina's headshotKallie Stahl ’17 MA is Communication and Marketing Specialist at Falvey Memorial Library. Regina Duffy is Communication and Marketing Program Manager at Falvey Memorial Library.

 

 


 


Like

2020 Falvey Scholars: Gabriella Giordano

Gabriella Giordano photo.

Falvey Memorial Library is honored to announce the 2020 Falvey Scholar award winners. Celebrating Villanova’s Senior Week, we will be showcasing the research of seven seniors each day this week (May 11-16). An annual program, sponsored by the Library and the Center for Research and Fellowships, the Falvey Scholars program recognizes outstanding undergraduate research at Villanova University. The winners of the Falvey Scholar award are selected from a pool of candidates generated by applications submitted by a senior Villanova University student or a group of students working on a senior project together with the recommendation of the advisor to the senior thesis or capstone project completed for academic credit.

While we are saddened to have canceled this year’s in-person awards ceremony, the health and safety of the community in response to the global outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is paramount. As we cannot gather on campus, the 2020 Falvey Scholars have generously prepared short video presentations on their scholarship. Learn more about Falvey Scholar award winner, Gabriella Giordano, in the clip below, and stay tuned for an in-depth profile on Giordano in the coming weeks.

Falvey Scholar: Gabriella Giordano

Project Title: “Spatial analysis of heavy metals in marsh soils and ribbed mussels (Geukensia demissa) from Plum Island Estuary, MA”

Mentor: Associate Professor Nathaniel Weston, PhD


headshot picture of regina duffyKallie Stahl ’17 MA is Communication and Marketing Specialist at Falvey Memorial Library. Regina Duffy is Communication and Marketing Program Manager at Falvey Memorial Library.

 

 


 


Like

2020 Falvey Scholars: Timothy Long

Timothy Long photo.

Falvey Memorial Library is honored to announce the 2020 Falvey Scholar award winners. Celebrating Villanova’s Senior Week, we will be showcasing the research of seven seniors each day this week (May 11-16). An annual program, sponsored by the Library and the Center for Research and Fellowships, the Falvey Scholars program recognizes outstanding undergraduate research at Villanova University. The winners of the Falvey Scholar award are selected from a pool of candidates generated by applications submitted by a senior Villanova University student or a group of students working on a senior project together with the recommendation of the advisor to the senior thesis or capstone project completed for academic credit.

While we are saddened to have canceled this year’s in-person awards ceremony, the health and safety of the community in response to the global outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is paramount. As we cannot gather on campus, the 2020 Falvey Scholars have generously prepared short video presentations on their scholarship. Learn more about Falvey Scholar award winner, Timothy Long, in the clip below, and stay tuned for an in-depth profile on Long in the coming weeks.

Falvey Scholar: Timothy Long

Project Title: “Even the Mercy of the Lord Burns: Violence, Distortion, and Grace in Flannery O’Connor, Jacques Maritain, and Karl Barth”

Mentor: Assistant Professor Helena Tomko, DPhil


Gina's headshotKallie Stahl ’17 MA is Communication and Marketing Specialist at Falvey Memorial Library. Regina Duffy is Communication and Marketing Program Manager at Falvey Memorial Library.

 

 


 


Like

2020 Falvey Scholars: Madison Puleo

Madison Puleo photo.Falvey Memorial Library is honored to announce the 2020 Falvey Scholar award winners. Celebrating Villanova’s Senior Week, we will be showcasing the research of seven seniors each day this week (May 11-16). An annual program, sponsored by the Library and the Center for Research and Fellowships, the Falvey Scholars program recognizes outstanding undergraduate research at Villanova University. The winners of the Falvey Scholar award are selected from a pool of candidates generated by applications submitted by a senior Villanova University student or a group of students working on a senior project together with the recommendation of the advisor to the senior thesis or capstone project completed for academic credit.

While we are saddened to have canceled this year’s in-person awards ceremony, the health and safety of the community in response to the global outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) is paramount. As we cannot gather on campus, the 2020 Falvey Scholars have generously prepared short video presentations on their scholarship. Learn more about Falvey Scholar award winner Madison Puleo in the clip below, and stay tuned for an in-depth profile on Puleo in the coming weeks.

Falvey Scholar: Madison Puleo

Project Title: “An Interprofessional Mock Code-Care Transition-Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Patient- Missed, Omitted and Delayed (MOD) Medication Simulation Case Study”

Mentor: Clinical Assistant Nursing Professor Diane Ellis


Gina's headshotKallie Stahl ’17 MA is Communication and Marketing Specialist at Falvey Memorial Library. Regina Duffy is Communication and Marketing Program Manager at Falvey Memorial Library.

 

 


 


Like
1 People Like This Post

The Art of the Cell: Meet Ritesh Karsalia, 2019 Falvey Scholar

Ritesh Karsalia, 2019 Falvey Scholar

Ritesh Karsalia receives the Falvey Scholar Award from Jeehyun “Jee” Davis, Associate University Librarian for Collections and Stewardship.

BY SHAWN PROCTOR

This is part 6 of a 6-part series featuring the 2019 Falvey Scholars. Read more about them every Tuesday and in the upcoming issue of Mosaic: the library’s bi-annual publication.

Scholarly Stats:

Ritesh Karsalia ’19 CLAS (Biology major; Latin American Studies, Spanish Language & Literature minors)

Hometown: Colonia, New Jersey

Faculty Mentor: Anil Bamezai, PhD, Professor, Director Graduate Program

Research: “Investigating the role of ordered (Io) and disordered (Id) phases within the plasma membrane of primary CD4+ helper T lymphocytes in their antigen-specific responses”

 

In his own words:

Ritesh’s Research:

My research process is founded on the scientific method, which has allowed me to conduct empirical experiments to test various immunological hypotheses. The subset of my laboratory group that I’ve focused on has been the spatiotemporal regulation of CD4+ helper T cells in response to foreign antigens.

While my principal investigator has been conducting research in this field for much of his professional career, not much information is known about the dynamic orchestration of cellular membrane-proximal signaling events and how they specifically affect the immune cell’s ability to respond. Therefore, I first began compiling the current scientific literature related to lipid-raft signaling and membrane-proximal CD4+ T cell signaling in order to locate the gaps in the current knowledge base.

My research project ultimately builds upon a series of previous studies that investigates how the order of cellular membranes, regulated by lipids, proteins, and cholesterol situated within regions called lipid-rafts, affects the ability of CD4+ T cells to respond appropriately. There are a few studies that have previously discovered that the order of CD4+ T cell membranes can be disrupted with a cholesterol-derivative, 7-ketocholesterol, leading to a decreased CD4+ response in the presence of a foreign antigen.


“CD4+ T cells are the major regulators of our immune system, and with so much disease history and technological developments in our modern world, I did not think that there were still so many question marks related to CD4+ T cell responses.” –Ritesh Karsalia, 2019 Falvey Scholar


Analyzing these studies allowed me to understand that increased membrane disorder leads to decreased CD4+ T cell response, if the disorder is induced relatively early (within 24 hours of antigen presentation). I then asked the broader questions of 1) whether this process is reversible and 2) how this process mechanistically occurs. Previous investigations had been unable to determine these aspects of this phenomenon, and the answers to these questions would allow scientists to better modulate CD4+ T cell responses though membrane order/disorder.

After asking these questions, I again went through the published scientific literature and looked at previous studies conducted by previous members in my laboratory to look for different biological mechanisms that could be affecting this process. I learned what mechanisms had already been unsuccessfully shown to affect this process and looked at some of the other promising events governing T-cell activation as areas of inquiry.

By reading previous literature that explained how 7-ketocholesterol specifically disrupts the order of lipid-rafts, I was able to hypothesize a potential way to Ritesh Karsalia next to fountainreconstitute the disordered membrane and assess CD4+ T cell response, afterwards.

I started physically performing cell-culture experiments to test my hypotheses. I worked with DO11 BALB/c transgenic mice that were bred in the vivarium in the Mendel Science Center. Since I was primarily focused on analyzing the cellular responses of CD4+ T cells, I harvested the lymph nodes from these cells and appropriately treated these cells to test my hypotheses.

These treatment groups included solutions containing 7-ketocholesterol (to induce disorder) and cholesterol (to reconstitute order). Multiple concentration ranges were used for each treatment group to understand relevant dosage-effects. To gain a better understanding of the biological mechanism(s) affecting membrane-order-based responses, western blots were used to analyze ubiquitination patterns after the T-cells were appropriately treated with 7-ketocholesterol and/or cholesterol and stimulated with a monoclonal antibody.

The expression of CD69, an early activation marker of cell activation that is implicated with CD4+ T cell proliferation, was also analyzed using flow cytometry to understand if the processes governing the expression of this protein were affected by increased membrane disorder. For all the experiments I performed, MTT assays, which measure the metabolic activity of cells, were used to quantify how much proliferation and activation occurred in each treatment group.

 

Ritesh’s “Falvey Experience”:

The Falvey Memorial Library staff and the resources were crucial to the success of my research project. I am extremely grateful for the subscriptions that the Falvey Library provided to a diverse array of online scientific journals.

As my research project was founded upon related previous studies, and a lot of my work focused on filling in the gaps between these works, I was only able to access the hundreds of publications that I have read along the course of my project due to the library’s subscriptions.

These resources were also valuable when I was performing my experimental procedures. For example, I needed to isolate macrophages (which present the foreign antigens to the CD4+ cells) as part of my procedure when setting up my cell cultures to test for the effect of the different treatment groups. My laboratory did not have the kit that would allow me to isolate these macrophages from the lymph nodes of our mice, and the cost of the kit (over $1000) exceeded my budget. Thanks to the subscriptions that Falvey Library provided, I was able to find an alternate procedure which involved harvesting the macrophages from the bone marrow of the mice. This procedure was one which was unfamiliar to my laboratory group, but using the resources that the library provided, I was able to successfully implement the procedure into my experiment.

Additionally, I attended numerous presentations by Robin Bowles, then Falvey’s Nursing and Biology Librarian, when I was participating in the Villanova Undergraduate Research Fellowship for my research project. Robin helped me tremendously when it came to performing targeted searches for publications relevant to my project.Ritesh at the lectern

Unfortunately, there isn’t a lot of information known about the spatiotemporal regulation of the cell membrane in the context of CD4+ T cell responses. Early in the summer, I visited Robin in the library – thanks to her help, I was able to gain access to a relatively recent international publication about CD69’s implication in tumor immunity. Through the interlibrary loan system and the help of Robin, I was able to access this publication. This was a very helpful document in persuading me to investigate CD69 expression as a part of my research project. Robin’s presentations also introduced me to Zotero and proper reference management. I have not had much exposure to writing scientific literature before this project, so the resources that the library provided to introduce me to documentation management, in-text citations, and creating an appropriate works cited section were invaluable.

 

 

The Impact on Him:

This project taught me the importance of using past research and inquiry as a guide to understanding the current state of our knowledge base and as a building block to expand upon. After completing my research project, I’ve really come to understand how the work that we, as critical thinkers and investigators, perform is really part of a larger academic collective.

When asking new questions and expanding upon the questions that our colleagues have previously asked, we’re ultimately creating a more comprehensive knowledge base for the future. It was extremely humbling to realize how the work that I performed is directly connected to the work that other international investigators have performed for tens of years.

This experience has influenced my academic goals because it has also taught me how much more information is still out there to be uncovered, and how crucial investigation is towards the advancement of science.

As an aspiring healthcare professional, I was shocked to learn that so many of the processes related to CD4+ T cell signaling are still unknown. CD4+ T cells are the major regulators of our immune system, and with so much disease history and technological developments in our modern world, I did not think that there were still so many question marks related to CD4+ T cell responses.

What’s Next:

This experience has made me more cognizant of the importance of scholarly inquiry and has persuaded me to continue performing research as I advance in medical school and become a physician. The work I will one day be able to perform as a physician will only be possible due to past research, so I hope to continue to contribute to the field and aid in its advancements through further scholarly investigations.

 


 

 

 


Shawn Proctor, MFA, 
is communications and marketing program manager at Falvey Memorial Library.


Like

 


Last Modified: July 9, 2019