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Memorial Day – Then and Now

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A brief history of the Memorial Day holiday

Memorial Day or, more accurately, Memorial Day weekend marks the unofficial beginning of summer. Memorial Day itself is now celebrated on the last Monday of May. However, this was not always true, so below is a bit of the history of this holiday.

A number of locations claim to be the birthplace of Memorial Day, Boalsburg, Pa., among them. Often called Decoration Day, it was established as a day to decorate with flowers the graves of those who lost their lives in the Civil War. Approximately 620,000 men lost their lives in the war so most families, North and South, had some personal relationship with the dead or injured.

alice-tombstoneOn May 5, 1868, Major General John Alexander Logan (1826-1886) and an organization of Union veterans, declared that May 30 should be the day on which the graves of the war dead should be decorated with flowers. That year a large ceremony, presided over by Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and various Washington, D.C., officials, was held at Arlington National Cemetery. Congressman James Garfield of Ohio was one of the speakers. At the conclusion of the speeches, members of the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) and children from a nearby orphanage for children of Union veterans placed flowers on the graves of more than 20,000 Union and Confederate soldiers while singing hymns and reciting prayers.

The back story for this: an anonymous writer had sent a letter to the GAR adjutant general, a letter in which the author told the adjutant general that in his native Germany it was a custom to place flowers on graves in the spring. alice-flagThe adjutant general, Norton P. Chipman, sent this information to Logan. Logan then expanded upon the idea and sent an order to all GAR posts to observe May 30 as a day to honor the Civil War dead. This date, May 30, became the first nationally observed commemoration held in more than 200 locations, mostly in the North.

There are other claimants for the establishment of Memorial Day. In Richmond, Virginia, women formed the Hollywood Memorial Association of the Ladies of Richmond and they helped to establish the Oakwood Memorial Association; the purpose of these two groups was to decorate the graves, both those of Union and Confederate soldiers, in the Hollywood and Oakwood Cemeteries. The same year, 1865, Confederate veterans organized, but the decoration of graves remained women’s work.

From the 1870s on some observed the holiday as commemoration and others chose to enjoy themselves. By the 1890s May 30 had become more a popular holiday, less a memorial to the Civil War dead who had been forgotten by many. Congress declared Memorial Day a federal holiday in 1889.

Recent history

0142184e39c4a65c074e0437142edc22President Lyndon Johnson and Congress declared in 1966 that Waterloo, N.Y., was the birthplace of Memorial Day, based upon a ceremony held there on May 5, 1866, honoring area veterans of the Civil War. Other claimants are Boalsburg, Pa.; Macon and Columbus, Ga.; Carbondale, Ill; Columbus, Miss.; and others.In 1968 Congress changed the date of Memorial Day from May 30 to the last Monday of May. This change was strongly encouraged by the travel and resort industries; a three day weekend was an invitation to travel for many.

Since the late 1960s Memorial Day has become a major commercial activity. Originally many businesses closed, but this is no longer true. Now there are numerous Memorial Day sales – my email is filled with advertisements for these as are newspapers.

Congress passed a law, signed by the president, in December 2000 to honor the fallen of all wars: “The National Moment of Remembrance Act.” There are also Confederate Memorial Days still observed in many Southern States: Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas and Virginia. Each of these states set its own date to honor its Confederate dead.

POPPIES

Picnics and memories

On a personal level, I grew up hearing Memorial Day referred to as Decoration Day, perhaps a regional or generational custom. I lived in western Maryland, south of the Mason Dixon Line, but an area more Northern than Southern in its history. I remember going with my family – grandparents, parents and younger sister – to visit a small, very rural hilltop cemetery where the adults spent the day clearing weeds and other debris from the graves and, when lunch time came, we had a picnic right there (Mom’s homemade meatloaf, kept warm by wrapping it in multiple layers of newspaper, and potato salad). Flowers, cut from my grandmother’s flowerbed, were placed in front of the tombstones. I knew an older widow who cut peonies from her garden to take to the cemetery to place on her husband’s grave. None of the graves in that old family cemetery belonged to Civil War soldiers, nor was the widow’s husband a Civil War veteran. Even today I know family members who visit cemeteries to leave flowers on Memorial Day. Is this a local custom?

Many communities do have Memorial Day events with speeches honoring those who fell serving the United States, parades, picnics and other activities. How will you spend your Memorial Day?

Dig Deeper: Falvey resources

The National Memorial Day: A Record of Ceremonies Over the Graves of the Union Soldiers, May 29 and 30, 1869. 1870. E. F. M. Faehtz.
Memorial Lessons: A Sermon Preached at King’s Chapel, Boston, on Sunday, May 29, 1870, with a List of the Sons of the Church Who Entered the Service of the Country. 1870. Henry Wilder Foote.
Memorial Day, May 30, 1870, Oration by Gen. I. F. Shepard (Adjutant General of Missouri) at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis, Mo. 1870. I. F. Shepard.
 A History of Memorial Day: Unity, Discord and the Pursuit of Happiness. 2002. Richard P. Harmond.
Honoring the Civil War Dead: Commemoration and the Problem of Reconciliation. 2005. John R. Neff.
Celebrating America’s Freedoms. (Online) 2009. United States Dept of Veterans Affairs.


Cemetery photos and story by Alice Bampton. Waterloo, NY photo credit: Joseph Sohm/Visions of America/Corbis.


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Dig Deeper: Daniel Torday

TORDAYCRXsmDaniel Torday, one of the Literary Festival’s featured speakers, will give a reading and a talk tomorrow, Thursday, February 11 at 7:00 p.m. in Speakers’ Corner of Falvey Memorial Library.

Daniel Torday is the author of the novel The Last Flight of Poxl West, a New York Times Book Review Editor’s Choice, and an Amazon.com Best Debuts of 2015. His novella, The Sensualist, won the 2012 National Jewish Book Award for debut fiction. Torday’s stories and essays have appeared in Esquire Magazine, n+1, The New York Times, The Paris Review Daily and Tin House. A former editor at Esquire, Torday serves as an editor at The Kenyon Review. He is Director of Creative Writing at Bryn Mawr College. At the event, Torday will read from his most recent novel The Last Flight of Poxl West.

This event, co-sponsored by Falvey Memorial Library and the Department of English, is free and open to the public.

To learn more about Torday before the event, check out the resources below, selected by Sarah Wingo, team leader of Humanities II, subject librarian for English, literature and theatre.


Dig Deeper

The Last Flight of Poxl West

Daniel Torday’s website: http://www.danieltorday.com/

Links to writings and non-fiction essays: http://www.danieltorday.com/writings/

NPR interview from last year on Torday’s latest book.

Jewish Book Council Review


SarahLinks curated by Sarah Wingo, team leader – Humanities II, subject librarian for English, literature and theatre. Article and graphics by Joanne Quinn, team leader for Communication & Service Promotion.


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Dig Deeper: Replacement Parts

replacement parts caplanA Scholarship@Villanova lecture featuring Arthur L. Caplan, PhD; The Rev. James J. McCartney, OSA; and Daniel P. Reid ‘14 CLAS will take place today at 3:00 p.m. in Speakers’ Corner of Falvey Memorial Library. Dr. Caplan, an internationally recognized bioethicist, along with co-editors Father McCartney and Reid, will discuss their collection of essays from medicine, philosophy, economics and religion that address the ethical challenges raised by organ transplantation.

Their book, Replacement Parts, takes an interdisciplinary approach to fundamental issues like the determination of death and the dead donor rule; the divisive case of using anencephalic infants as organ donors; the sale of cadaveric or live organs; possible strategies for increasing the number of available organs, including market solutions and the idea of presumed consent; and questions surrounding transplant tourism and “gaming the system” by using the media to gain access to organs.

The author, Arthur L. Caplan, PhD, is the head of the Division of Bioethics at New York University’s Langone Medical Center and the author or editor of over thirty books and six hundred articles. Co-editor Father James J. McCartney is an associate professor in the Department of Philosophy at Villanova University and an adjunct professor in its School of Law. In the past he has been the ethics consultant for several major health systems in the United States. Daniel P. Reid, co-editor, is a recent graduate of Villanova University.

This event, co-sponsored by Falvey Memorial Library and the Department of Philosophy, is free and open to the public.

To learn more about the ethical issues surrounding organ donation, check out the following resources provided by Robin Bowles, subject librarian for science, biology, and nursing.


Dig Deeper

 Falvey Memorial Library resource list featuring 13 Falvey holdings:

Replacement Parts

Highlight of the list: Transplantation Ethics by Robert M. Veatch

book cover Robert M. Veatch Transplantation Ethics

Further resources:

Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context—Topic: Organ Donation
A collection of news articles, editorials, Academic articles, and other related information covering the topic of Organ Donation for the undergraduate.

Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia of Bioethics


RS4532_FML164_RobinBowles_019_EDITDig Deeper links selected by Robin Bowles, liaison librarian for science, biology, and nursing.


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Dig Deeper: Careers in International Development Day 2015

international development logo

Careers in International Development Day at the Connelly Center is not your usual job fair – it’s a symposium designed for career exploration and a perfect event for students interested in pursuing careers that address global poverty and related issues. Lindsay Coates, Executive Vice President of InterAction, an alliance of 190 International Non-governmental agencies will open the day at 1:30 p.m. in the Cinema with an overview of the changes, challenges, and opportunities in the field. From 2:30-4:30 p.m. in the Villanova Room, professionals representing a variety of career paths, including the UN, USAID, Social Entrepreneurship, Impact Investing, Global Health and others will meet students in roundtable breakouts (repeating every 30 minutes) to share their professional experience and offer advice on what students need to get a foot in the door. In the Villanova Room Market Stall area, students can meet one-on-one with representatives from graduate programs, post-graduate overseas internship and volunteer opportunities and relevant VU curricular and extra-curricular programs from 2:30-4:30 p.m.

Catholic Relief Services organized and will host the event in partnership with Villanova University, the College of Nursing Center for Global and Public Health, the Villanova School of Business, the VSB Center for Global Leadership, the Career Center, the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, the College of Engineering, the Office of Mission and Ministry and the Southeastern Pennsylvania Consortium for Higher Education.


Dig Deeper

The library’s collection includes many books, article databases and statistical sources about international development. For the policy wonk, Columbia International Affairs Online includes full-text  case studies, policy briefs, scholarly articles and books. Public Affairs International  Service (PAIS) is an article database covering similar territory. Because international development is truly interdisciplinary, academic research on international development can be found in many specialized databases, such as  PubMed for health, EconLit for economics, and  Compendex or Inspec for engineering.

Since 1990 the United Nations has published the Human Development Report, which identifies trends in development, and the Index, which is a tool used to assess country level development in terms of life expectancy, education and income. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development publishes numerous books and statistical series on development in many dimensions all available in the OECDiLibrary. AidData.org takes a data driven approach to improving outcomes by publishing datasets, visualizations and reports.

Villanovans across the disciplines are engaged in research on various aspects of development aid. Suzanne Toton, EdD, writes about Catholic relief, world hunger and social justice. The writing of Kishor Thanawala, PhD, explores economic development and justice. Latin American Development is the area of expertise of Satya Pattnayak, PhD. Jonathan Doh, PhD, is a prolific researcher on nongovernmental organizations and global corporate responsibility. Christopher Kilby, PhD, is a thought leader on the economics of foreign aid. Ruth McDermott-Levy, PhD, is a practicing nurse, educator and researcher on international community health.

Careers in International Development Day speakers represent a variety of organizations, all with interesting web sites well worth exploring with links below:

Speakers Organizations

Alliance to End Hunger
InterAction
United States Agency for International Development USAID
Doctors Without Borders
Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Center
Catholic Relief Services
Uhl & Associates
TriLinc Global
Oiko Credit
Village Capital

 

Post-Baccalaureate Volunteer Organizations

Acumen
Amigos de Jesus
Augustinian Volunteers
Catholic Volunteer Network
Catholic Relief Services
Jesuit Volunteers
Maryknoll Lay Missioners
Mennonite Central Committee
Mercy Volunteer Corps
Peace Corps
Profugo
Unite for Sight


imagesArticle by Linda Hauck, MS, MBA, business librarian and team coordinator for the Business Research team.

 


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Dig Deeper: “By the pricking of my thumbs, / Something wicked …” – Macbeth

Have you ever seen a ghost? What if you were attending a banquet and no one else noticed the ghost … only you? As you try to avoid its accusatory stare, would you doubt your sanity? Macbeth, a general in the King of Scotland’s army, faces such memorable moments in Macbeth.
Macbeth ghost 2
Whether you’ve studied Macbeth, you know that plays were meant to be seen, to be experienced. And when performed by an exceptional troupe—such as the talented, capable team at the Villanova Theatre—Shakespeare’s plays come alive!

Unbridled ambition, preternatural prognosticating, evil’s allure, sex and murder: Macbeth promises a memorable experience.

So if Halloween has left you hankering for witches and ghosts, Macbeth will satisfy such aberrant appetites. This play will challenge you to “dare look on that / Which might appal the devil.”


Dig Deeper—

The following resources are available through Falvey Memorial Library:

Macbeth with criticism/critical essays

Macbeth as subject

Articles

DVD

Databases of images and articles—

Shakespeare’s Words
The site integrates the full text of the plays and poems with the entire Glossary database, allowing you to search for any word or phrase in Shakespeare’s works, and in particular to find all instances of all words that can pose a difficulty to the modern reader.
[Details]

Shakespearean Literature Criticism (Gale)
This database provides comprehensive coverage of critical interpretations of the plays of Shakespeare with excerpts from the criticism of William Shakespeare’s plays and poetry, from the first published appraisals to current evaluations. Reprints also available from Literature Resource Center.
[Details]

Variorium Shakespeare
variorum is a work that collates all known variants of a text. It is a work of textual criticism, whereby all variations and emendations are set side by side so that a reader can track how textual decisions have been made in the preparation of a text for publication.
[Details]

World Shakespeare Bibliography Online (Johns Hopkins)
Provides annotated entries for all important books, articles, book reviews, as well as theatrical productions, reviews of productions and other material related to Shakespeare published or produced between 1960 and 2013, with coverage continuing to extend forward and backward in time.
[Details]

Luna: Folger Shakespeare Library Digital Image Collection
This database offers access to tens of thousands of high resolution images from the Folger Shakespeare Library, including books, theater memorabilia, manuscripts, and art. Users can show multiple images side-by-side, zoom in and out, view cataloging information when available, export thumbnails, and construct persistent URLs linking back to items or searches.
[Details]

MIT Global Shakespeares
The Global Shakespeares Video & Performance Archive is a collaborative project providing online access to performances of Shakespeare from many parts of the world as well as essays and metadata by scholars and educators in the field.
[Details]

Open Source Shakespeare (Shakespeare Concordance)
Open Source Shakespeare attempts to be the best free Web site containing Shakespeare’s complete works. It is intended for scholars, thespians, and Shakespeare lovers of every kind. Of particular interest on this site is the Concordance where you can search for words or phrases across Shakespeare’s complete works.

Other helpful databases—

Literature Criticism Online (Gale)
LCO is an extensive compilation of literary commentary reaching back 30 years and cover centuries of critiques on authors and their works that span all time periods, types of literature and regions. The cross searchable collection brings together the most acclaimed literary series Drama Criticism, Classical and Medieval Literature Criticism, Poetry Criticism and Short Story Criticism providing criticism on the major authors, dramatists and poets. The database includes Shakespearean Literature Criticism with a comprehensive coverage of critical interpretations of his plays and poetry.
[Details]

Records of Early English Drama (REED)
Records of Early English Drama (REED) is an international scholarly project that is establishing for the first time the context from which the drama of Shakespeare and his contemporaries grew. REED has for the last thirty-five years worked to locate, transcribe, and edit historical documents containing evidence of drama, secular music, and other communal entertainment and ceremony from the Middle Ages until 1642, when the Puritans closed the London theatres. Along with twenty-seven collections of records in print, with the most recent, Inns of Court, published in December 2010, REED is building a dynamic collection of freely available digital resources for research and education.
[Details]


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Dig Deeper: Brian Friel

FRIEL2

Acclaimed as the “finest Irish dramatist of his generation” playwright Brian Friel passed away last week at the age of 86. Called a ‘great theatrical explorer’ by Guardian theatre critic Michael Billington, Friel was best known for the plays Philadelphia, Here I Come, about a young man about to leave his Irish country home for a new life in the States, and Dancing at Lughnasa, a story of five struggling unmarried sisters, which won three Tonys and was adapted in a film starring Meryl Streep.

Always one to scoff at critical opinion – favorable or not – and avoid interviews, Friel famously once mock-conducted a Q&A with himself for BBC Radio, skewering reporters’ go-to talking points, “chestnuts” and star-making machinery in general:

When did you know, Mr. Friel, that you were going to be a writer?
The answer is, I have no idea.
What other writers influenced you most strongly?
I have no idea.
Which of your plays, Mr. Friel, is your favorite?
None of them.
Which of your stories?
Most of them embarrass me.
Do you think, Mr. Friel, that the atmosphere in Ireland is hostile or friendly to the artist?
Uh, I’m thinking of my lunch.
Do you see any relationship between dwindling theatrical audiences all over the world and the fragmentation of what we might call the theatrical thrust into disparate movements like theatre of cruelty, tactile theatre, nude theatre, theater of despair, etc., etc., or would you say, Mr. Friel, that the influence of Heidegger is only beginning to be felt in the drama and that Beckett and Pinter are John the Baptists of the great new movement?
Well, in answer to that, I’d say that – I’d say that I’m a middle-aged man and that I tire easily and that I’d like to go out for a walk now; so please go away and leave me alone.
Brian Friel, “Self Portrait, “ BBC Radio Four Northern Ireland, 19 December 1971.  From Friel, B. (2000). Introduction. In Brian Friel in conversation (p. 3). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
 friel-2A native of Northern Ireland, Friel was also greatly engrossed in Irish politics and the ‘troubles’ – cultural provocations explored in another famous work, Translations, written in 1980, the height of the violence in the North. This play  features a line that articulates the underlying theme to much of his work, that “it is not the literal past, the ‘facts’ of history that shape us, but images of the past embodied in language.”
Something to look forward to: Friel’s Translations will be staged at Villanova Theatre on April 12-24, 2016.

Dig Deeper:

FRIEL SHELF
Sarah Wingo, research librarian for English and Theatre, has provided links for learning more about this provocative playwright:

Obit from the Guardian

Drama On One: Playwrights In Profile – Brian Friel

The Cambridge companion to Brian Friel

Other works by and about Friel in Villanova’s collection

Links and info on Translations the play by Friel that Villanova will be doing in April:

Translations, the play

Villanova Theatre website

RTÉ ‘Rattlebag’: 25th anniversary of Brian Friel’s ‘Translations’: https://youtu.be/8aUROE43IlM (this is the play that Villanova is doing)

Timmermans, G. H. “Brian Friel (9 or 10 January 1929-).” British and Irish Short-Fiction Writers, 1945-2000. Ed. Cheryl Alexander Malcolm and David Malcolm. Vol. 319. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 73-79. Dictionary of Literary Biography Vol. 319. Dictionary of Literary Biography Main Series. Web. 5 Oct. 2015: http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=QZFZAW066682188&v=2.1&u=vill_main&it=r&p=DLBC&sw=w&asid=fa86415660c526a9981070d51f0bfca1


SarahLinks curated by Sarah Wingo, team leader- Humanities II, subject librarian for English, literature and theatre. Article and graphics by Joanne Quinn, team leader for Communication & Service Promotion.


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Pluto—the Second of Two Dwarf Planets Seen at Close Range in 2015

Before New Horizons captured the first-ever detailed images of Pluto this month, it had traveled for nine-and-a-half years to reach the edge of our Solar System. When that spacecraft launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. on January 19, 2006, Pluto was still classified as a planet.

Pluto

Pluto discovered—Clyde Tombaugh, working at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona, discovered Pluto February 18, 1930. But the first such object, albiet smaller than Pluto, had been discovered more than a century earlier.

Ceres discovered—A Catholic priest, Giuseppe Piazzi, who held a PhD in mathematics, was also an astronomer. His catalog of almost 7,000 stars earned him the L’Institut de France prize for “best astronomical work published in 1803” (Barr). On January 1, 1801, while working on his catalog, he discovered an object whose changes in position were more like those of a planet than a star. “Piazzi had found the first [and the largest] of many thousands of ‘asteroids’ or ‘minor planets’ whose orbits lie mainly in a belt between Mars and Jupiter” (Barr).

Eris discovered—The next such discovery, after that of Pluto, came more than two centuries later, on October 21, 2003.

Eris

This sphere, at the Solar System’s limit and orbiting the Sun, was larger than Pluto and had its own moon (Pluto has five known moons). This find begged the question: If Pluto is a planet, how could this larger globe, Eris, not also be considered a planet?

Haumea discovered—Its discovery was officially announced in 2005.

Makemake discovered—The International Astronomical Union officially recognized Makemake as a dwarf planet in 2008.

More dwarf planets?—Scientists have estimated that “dozens or even more than 100 dwarf planets” may be awaiting discovery. The likelihood of additional yet-to-be-discovered globes has left astronomers asking, “Just what constitutes a planet?”

 “Planet” (re)defined— At the International Astronomical Union (IAU) General Assembly in Prague, 2006, astronomers “debated vigorously” over the definition of “planet.” They established a definition that would classify Ceres, Pluto, Eris, Makemake and Haumea as “dwarf planets,” leaving our Solar System with eight planets.

planets

Why, then, is Pluto the second dwarf planet to be seen at close range in 2015?

Dawn makes history—Earlier this year, another space probe reached another dwarf planet, capturing detailed images and, this time, discovering a mystery. NASA’s Dawn space-probe entered into orbit around Ceres March 6, 2015, becoming “the first mission to achieve orbit around a dwarf planet.” Dawn’s photos revealed “a cluster of mysterious bright spots” on Ceres’ surface, which have intrigued scientists.

Ceres' spots

Father Giuseppe Piazzi would undoubtedly be pleased that his discovery has generated such interest more than two centuries after he identified it.

Works Cited

Barr, Stephen, and Dermott Mullan. “Planets, Priests and a
……..Persistent Myth.” Wall Street Journal, Eastern edition ed.
……..May 22 2015. ProQuest. Web. 15 July 2015. Gerald Dierkes


Check out these Villanova resources for additional information:

The Library’s Astronomy and Astrophysics subject page

Falvey resources on dwarf planets

The Villanova Astronomical Society

The Villanova Public Observatory


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Harper Lee’s Second Book and its Publication Bring Controversy

Go Set a Watchman - cover

Imagine having a book you’ve written published for the first time. How surprised would you be if your book became a bestseller, won a Pulitzer Prize, and was even made into a motion picture starring a major actor? Would you publish another book and risk disappointing your audience? Or would you choose to leave your readers wanting more?

That book, of course, is Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird. When it was released 55 years ago, one critic compared Lee’s skill to that of Mark Twain, and described her as “an artist of rare talent and control. This first novel is an achievement of unusual magnitude” (Canfield).

The recent announcement that Harper Lee’s second book to be published, Go Set a Watchman, would be released today captured the imaginations of Mockingbird’s fans and of the literary world. Watchman, however, is not a new book. In fact, Lee wrote it decades ago, before writing Mockingbird. That Lee waited so many years before publishing Watchman has raised questions about her decision, including controversy about whether she herself made this decision.

The first controversy

Harper Lee, now 88, suffered a stroke in 2007 and lives in an assisted-living facility (Trachtenberg). Her sister, Alice Lee (now deceased), in a 2011 interview, described Harper as “mostly blind and deaf” following her stroke (Berman). Alice Lee, an attorney, who had “long represented her sister and whom friends describe as Ms. Lee’s ‘protector,’ died Nov. 17 [2014].” Less than three months after Alice Lee’s death comes the announcement from HarperCollins Publishers that Go Set a Watchman would be published on July 14, 2015.

Lee has not spoken to anyone except her agent and her attorney about Watchman, its discovery or its publication. Harper publisher Jonathan Burnham insists that Lee is “very much engaged in the process,” although he bases his assessment on reports from Lee’s agent. Lee, Burnham adds, will not give interviews or other publicity when Watchman is released (Berman).

That Lee’s agent and her attorney, who appear to have everything to gain financially from this situation, have been the only ones communicating with the author Harper Leehas prompted an investigation. The Alabama Securities Commission investigated and “concluded that Ms. Lee appeared to understand what was occurring while approving the publication of ‘Go Set a Watchman’” (Stevens).

Despite the Commission’s findings, Lee’s fans have remained skeptical over the circumstances of Watchman’s discovery. These lingering doubts may have motivated Lee’s attorney, Tonja Carter, to publish an explanation in Monday’s Wall Street Journal (Carter).

The second controversy

Although Watchmen includes characters from Mockingbird, such as Scout and Atticus, the novel is set twenty years into the future, into the civil-rights movement. Fans of Mockingbird may be shocked to discover changes in Atticus. He served as Mockingbird’s “moral conscience: kind, wise, honorable, an avatar of integrity” (Kakutani).

In Watchmen, Scout, 26 and known as Jean Louise, has been living in New York City. She visits her hometown, Maycomb, Ala., to discover that Atticus now holds “abhorrent views on race and segregation” (Kakutani). Readers may wonder why Lee wrote this book as “a distressing narrative filled with characters spouting hate speech.” Ultimately, as Mockingbird “suggested that we should have compassion for outsiders like Boo and Tom Robinson,” Watchman “asks us to have understanding for a bigot named Atticus” (Kakutani).

Works Cited

Berman, Russell. “How Harper Lee’s Long-Lost Sequel Was
……..Found.” theatlantic.com. Feb 4, 2015.

Canfield, Francis X., “To Kill a Mockingbird,” Critic, 1960

Carter, Tonja B. “How I found the Harper Lee Manuscript.” Wall
……..Street Journal
, Eastern edition ed. Jul 13 2015. ProQuest.
……..Web. 13 July 2015.

Kakutani, Michiko. “Review: Harper Lee’s ‘Go Set a Watchman’
……..Gives Atticus Finch a Dark Side.” http://nyti.ms/1ULlBZv

Stevens, Laura, and Jeffrey A. Trachtenberg. “Business News: No
……..Fraud found Is Discovered in Harper Lee Case.” Wall Street
……..Journal
, Eastern edition ed.Mar 13 2015. ProQuest. Web. 13
……..July 2015.

Trachtenberg, Jeffrey A., and Laura Stevens. “Harper Lee
……..Bombshell: How News of Book Unfolded.” Wall Street
……..Journal
, Eastern edition ed. Feb 07 2015. ProQuest. Web. 13
……..July 2015.


To Dig Deeper, explore the following links, prepared by Sarah Wingo, team leader: Humanities II and also subject librarian for English, literature and theatre:

One of the big issues that has sprung up around GSAW beyond the controversy over its publication is the difference in the character of Atticus Finch and concerns that it may “tarnish” his legacy.

Here is another point from yesterday

You can read the first chapter or listen to Reese Witherspoon read it

NPR piece from yesterday

NPR piece from Feb

NPR piece from 2014 indicating that if Lee is being taken advantage of with this publication it may not be the first time


SarahDig Deeper links selected by Sarah Wingo, team leader- Humanities II, subject librarian for English, literature and theatre. Article by Gerald Dierkes, senior copy-editor for the Communication and Service Promotion team and a liaison to the Department of Theater. 


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Dig Deeper: The Revolutionary War and American Independence

DECLARATION
 
“… these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do.

 Not just a list of grievances, the Declaration of Independence is also a checklist for good government. Its approval and adoption by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776 in Philadelphia (woot woot!) marks the beginning of a new nation, the United States of America.

Bell_Tower_of_Independence_HallIt’s easy to take the ideological stories of the birth of our nation and its heroes for granted as they have been taught to us since elementary school and romanticized in movies and television. But have you, as an adult, visited the Liberty Bell or Independence Hall (where the Declaration and its forebear, the Articles of Confederation,) were debated? Or walked the streets near Declaration House at 7th and Market where Thomas Jefferson wrote the document? Have you ever read or researched with a critical eye, materials that dig deeper into the symbolic, mythical and political realities of the document’s history?

The following links, curated by history liaison librarian, Jutta Seibert, are great scholarly resources for getting beyond the myths and into the historical context of the American Revolution. Why not take some time this July 4th weekend to explore some of Falvey’s many resources written about that time? She’s also included authentic primary materials from the Digital Library, to truly complete your step back into history.


 New Books

Books about the Declaration of Independence

Books about the American Revolution

Books about the history of the U.S. Constitution


 Primary Sources in Digital Collections

Falvey Memorial Library has a strong collection of primary sources about this monumental period in American history. Here are some suggestions from the library’s digital collections. Additional primary sources, available in print or microform only, can be discovered with the help of the library’s online catalog.

American Founding Era
This collection brings together scholarly digital editions of the papers of major figures of the early republic: George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Dolley Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Eliza Lucas Pinckney and Harriott Pinckney Horry.

America’s Historical Newspapers, 1690-1922
Follow the War of Independence and the birth of a new nation in contemporary newspapers.

Pennsylvania Gazette, 1728-1800
Follow the events of the American Revolution from a local perspective.

American Periodicals Series
Read the first magazines published in the American colonies and in the early republic.

Early American Imprints, Series I: Evans, 1639-1800
Digital copies of over 37,000 books and pamphlets published and sold in the American colonies and the early republic.

Early American Imprints, Series II: Shaw-Shoemaker, 1801-1819
Digital copies of over 36,000 books and pamphlets published and sold in the early republic.

Sabin Americana, 1500-1926
Digital copies of works about the Americas published throughout the world from 1500 to the early 1900’s.

American State Papers, 1789-1838
Legislative and executive documents of the first 14 U.S. Congresses.

Interested in the other side of the story? Discover British opinions on events in the American colonies through contemporary newspapers and magazines:

Online References

Encyclopedia of U.S. Political History

Encyclopedia of the American Constitution

Dictionary of American History

American National Biography Online

Encyclopedia of the American Revolution

A Companion to the American Revolution

Oxford Handbook of the American Revolution


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Jutta Seibert

Links and resources prepared by Jutta Seibert, team leader for Academic Integration and subject librarian for History. Introduction by Joanne Quinn.


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"The audience is half of the poem": the First Latino Poet Laureate

Library of Congress appoints the 1st Latino Poet Laureate

Connecting to people through performance is crucial for Herrera. “I used to stand on the corner in San Diego with poems sticking out of my hip pocket, asking people if there was a place where I could read poems,” he recalls. “The audience is half of the poem.”

(Retrieved from LA Times, 6/22/15)
Photo: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/juan-felipe-herrera

Photo: http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/juan-felipe-herrera

Congratulations to Juan Felipe Herrera, who was appointed the 21st poet laureate on June 10 by the Library of Congress. Herrera will be the first Hispanic-American person to be chosen as poet laureate in the United States in the 79 years since the program’s inception. His tenure will begin in September—national Hispanic heritage month.

Herrera, the son of migrant farmers, spent much of his youth travelling and living in tents in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Though terribly underprivileged, he was presented with the remarkable opportunity to attend UCLA as a young adult. From there, he went on to attend Stanford University and the University of Iowa’s Writing Workshop, where he earned a Master of Fine Arts in Creative Writing.

Through his education and experiences as a young Hispanic-American, Herrera developed a deep passion for writing and performing in both English and Spanish. He penned several pieces, including collections of poetry and children’s books in honor of his heritage and worldview. In addition to his writing and performing, Herrera has been an avid teacher and has also served as the poet laureate of California from 2012-2014.

Villanova University was lucky enough to welcome Juan Felipe Herrera as one of the featured speakers during the 14th annual Villanova Literary Festival, organized by Alan Drew, Assistant Professor of English & Creative Writing. The talk took place on Tuesday, February 21, 2012 in Falvey Memorial Library’s Speakers’ Corner. A jam-packed audience had the opportunity to listen to Herrera as he read and performed selected poems in both Spanish and English. With great enthusiasm and detail, Herrera shared his past experiences and showed poignant images to illustrate his work.

It’s been reported that Herrera’s main focus during his tenure as poet laureate will likely be to connect people of all different cultural backgrounds through poetry and to help highlight the stories of those people who are typically overlooked.

Interested in learning more about Juan Felipe Herrera? Check out Falvey Memorial Library’s holdings by this author.

Also, visit the following sites for additional information on Herrera and the position of Poet Laureate, provided by librarian Susan Ottignon.

Juan Felipe Herrera, Current Poet Laureate

List of works by Juan Felipe Herrera

Past Poets Laureate: 2011-present

About the Position of Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry


Dig Deeper links provided by Sue Ottignon, subject librarian for romance languages and literatures.


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Last Modified: June 29, 2015