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Dig Deeper: John R. Johannes, Ph.D., Kicks Off Presidential Election Lecture Series

You walk into your first day of class for the semester, sit down with your Holy Grounds cup of joe, and curiously await the arrival of your professor. An energetic gentleman walks in with an enthusiastic smile and tells you that you’ll be graded on a debate later this semester, claiming that it will be fun to become an expert. If he also says that you will be guided through the material by a professor cum coach and makes it clear that the responsibility for learning is yours, then, chances are, you’ve walked into Professor John R. Johannes’ survey course on American Politics.

This pedagogical ethos makes him the perfect candidate to give the premiere talk (at 1pm on Wednesday, Oct. 26) of the Falvey Memorial Library’s US Presidential Election Lecture Series. You may be thinking that you’ve heard all there is to know about the stakes of the current election. You may be thinking, “Yeah, yeah, I get it. I have to get out and vote.” Not so fast, according to Johannes’ recent book Thinking About Political Reform: How to Fix, or not Fix, American Government Politicsthere are two sides to the eligible voter participation debate.

"Thinking about Political Reform."

The cover of Johannes’
“Thinking about Political Reform.”

Johannes writes in his book that “members of a democratic society who work, pay taxes, serve in the military, help their neighbors, and so on have, as fundamental to the notion of a political community, both a right and responsibility to vote… on the other hand, many citizens recoil from compulsion, doubt the efficacy of incentives, and worry about abuse.” Passages like these in Thinking About Political Reform demonstrate Johannes’ acumen for seeing and articulating both sides of a political debate.

Johannes’ attention to such detail was developed over an academic and professional career that started with graduating summa cum laude from Marquette University in 1966. After receiving his Ph.D. from Harvard in the early ’70s, Johannes began teaching at Marquette where he stayed until 1995. During his time at Marquette, he served as department chair of the Political Science Department and as the Dean of Arts & Sciences. He also received a number of grants to author and publish his own pieces, many of which dealing with the US Congress.

In 1995, Johannes joined us here at Villanova as our Vice President for Academic Affairs. Since then he has also taught classes in the Political Science Department. He served as a member in the Philadelphia Economy League Task Force on the Knowledge Industry from 2000-2002. Then he worked with and served as chair for the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, where he still serves as commissioner.

Dr. Johannes

Dr. Johannes poses for a photo.

A blog post like the present piece hardly leaves room to mention his time spent as an editorial board member for the American Journal of Political Science and the Legislative Studies Quarterly, his experience with several political science associations, or his summers spent as a visiting professor at Harvard. A full list of Johannes’ achievements, accomplishments and honors can be found on his webpage.

The point of telling you all of this is to show the qualifications of a man who has dedicated his life to teaching political science and has dedicated a large portion of his career to improving the Villanova University community. On Wednesday, Oct. 26 at 1 pm, Johannes will continue his dedication by giving us Wildcats the chance to learn a thing or two about the direction of our country, focusing specifically on Congressional elections. We’ll see you at 1 pm in Speakers’ Corner.


Website photo 2

Article by William Repetto, a graduate assistant on the Communications and Marketing Team at the Falvey Memorial Library. He is currently pursuing an MA in English at Villanova University.

 


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Is Hillary Rodham Clinton the First Female Presidential Candidate?

Image courtesy of nbcnews.com

Image courtesy of nbcnews.com

Today, Oct. 26, is Hillary Rodham Clinton’s sixty ninth birthday. Clinton served as a U.S. Senator from 2001-2009; she was the first lady, married to President Bill Clinton, from 1993-2001. She first ran for president in 2008, but lost the nomination to Barack Obama. Now the 2016 Democratic candidate for president, she has attracted attention for numerous reasons including the fact that she is a female running for the office that has always been held by a male. But is she the first female to run for the office of president of the United States? In recent times two women have been nominated for vice president:  Sarah Palin as the Republican candidate in 2008 and Geraldine Ferraro as the Democratic candidate in 1984. But what about presidential candidates?

Detail of Mathew Brady photograph

Detail of Mathew Brady photo

In 1872 Victoria Claflin Woodhull (1838-1927) ran for president as the candidate for the Equal Rights Party. She is the first woman to run for the office. Her opposing candidates were Ulysses S. Grant, Republican candidate and former Civil War Union general, and Horace Greeley, Democratic candidate. Although she obviously lost the race, she did found her own newspaper, she fought for women’s rights and she owned a Wall Street investment firm – all impressive accomplishments for a woman in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood (1830-1917), a lawyer, ran for president twice (1884 and 1888) as the Equal Rights Party candidate. In 1884 she ran against Grover Cleveland, Democrat, and James G. Blaine, Republican. In 1888 she ran against Cleveland (Democrat) and Benjamin Harrison (Republican). Lockwood was the first woman lawyer to practice before the Supreme Court; she drafted the law which was passed by Congress enabling women to do so.

US Senate photo

US Senate photo

Margaret Chase Smith (1897-1995) is the first woman nominated for president by a major political party; she was a Republican candidate in 1964, but removed her name from the ballot after the first round of voting. Smith served in the House of Representatives for four terms beginning in 1940. She became a senator in 1948 and served there for four terms.

 

 

Image from Library of Congress

Image from Library of Congress

Shirley Anita Chisholm (1924-2005), the first African American woman to run for president, actively campaigning nationwide as a Democratic candidate. At the 1972 Democratic National Convention she received more than 150 delegate votes. Chisholm is the first African American woman to serve in Congress; she served from 1969 until 1968.

 

 

US Congress photograph

US Congress photograph

The same year-1972- as Chisholm ran for president, Patsy Takemoto Mink (1927-2002) ran as an anti-war candidate in the Oregon Democratic presidential primary election. Mink, a Japanese American lawyer from Hawaii, served in Congress 1965-1977 and 1990-2002.

 

 

Ellen McCormack resizeEllen McCormack (1926-2011) ran for president twice, 1976 and 1980, as an anti-abortion candidate for the Democratic party. McCormack was the first female candidate to qualify for federal campaign matching funds (which she mostly used to fund anti-abortion television commercials).

 

 Johnson resizeSonia Johnson (b.1936), an English professor and a Mormon (Church of Latter Day Saints), organized “Mormons for ERA (Equal Rights Amendment)” with other women after the Mormon Church opposed the passage of the ERA. Congress had passed the ERA and sent it to state legislatures for their ratifications. The church then excommunicated her. In 1984 two political parties, the U.S. Citizens Party and the Peace and Freedom Party, nominated Johnson, making her the first third-party candidate to qualify for matching funds, but she found it difficult to get on the primary election ballots in most states and her campaign failed.

US Congress portrait

US Congress portrait

Four years later in 1988, Patricia S. Schroeder (b.1940), a Democrat and lawyer, began her campaign for the presidency. She soon dropped out of the race before the primary elections because she was unable to raise sufficient funds.  Schroeder was a Congress woman; she ultimately served for twenty four years.

 

 

NWHM photograph

NWHM photograph

Lenora Fulani (b.1950), an African American born in Chester, Pa., ran for president twice, in 1988 and 1992, as the candidate of the New Alliance Party. She and the New Alliance Party were interested in ending our two-party system. In 1998 Fulani became “the first woman and the first African American to appear on the ballot in all fifty states and the District of Columbia.” Although the number of votes she received was small they were, nevertheless, the most votes received by a female presidential candidate in a general election. In 1992 Fulani ran again; this was the year that Bill Clinton won the presidential election.

 

US Senate photograph

US Senate photograph

Elizabeth Hanford Dole (b. 1936), with a MA in education and a law degree, was president of the American Red Cross from 1991-January 1999; she resigned to run for the Republican presidential nomination, but dropped out in October 1999. Dole campaigned for her husband, Robert Dole, during his campaign for the vice presidency in 1976 and his two attempts at the presidency, 1979 and 1987. Elizabeth Hanford Dole served three terms as the first female senator from North Carolina, 2002-2009.

 

Braun resizeCarol Moseley Braun (b. 1947) is a lawyer who worked in the Chicago offices of the Justice Department. She is the first African American woman to be elected (1992) to the U.S. Senate from Illinois. There she was the first woman member of the Senate Finance Committee and the Judiciary Committee.  Before becoming a Senator she had served in the Illinois House of Representatives. President Bill Clinton appointed her as ambassador to New Zealand, Samoa and the Cook Islands; this role ended when George W. Bush became president in 2001.  In September 2003 she announced that she was running for president, but had difficulty raising campaign funds and dropped out of the race in January 2004.

US govt. photograph

US govt. photograph

Michele Bachmann (b.1956) made a brief run for the presidency in 2012. A lawyer, she is a conservative activist and a founder of the Tea Party Caucus in Congress in 2010. Bachmann was elected to the Minnesota state senate in 2000; in 2006 she was elected to the U.S. Congress and became a prominent critic of President Obama. Bachmann is the first Republican Congresswoman for Minnesota. She announced her presidential candidacy in 2011, but her campaign failed to achieve the nomination. Her term in Congress ended in January 2015.

CNN photograph

CNN photograph

Carly Fiorina (b. 1954) is a business woman, best known for her role as the CEO of Hewlett-Packard, where in 1999 she became the first woman to head a Fortune 50 business. She was forced to resign from HP and then served in a variety of government positions. As a Republican Fiorina ran for the U.S. Senate in 2010, but lost to the Democratic candidate, Barbara Boxer. In May 2015 she announced that she would run for the 2016 presidential nomination. However, as we know, she lost.

This brings us to the current candidate for the presidency, Hillary Rodham Clinton. Clinton, a lawyer like many of the previous candidates, ran for president in 2008 and lost the nomination to Barack Obama. She is running again as the Democratic candidate; her Republican opponent is Donald Trump.

There have also been women vice presidential candidates. In addition to Sarah Palin and Geraldine Ferraro, Frances “Sissy” Farenthold, Toni Nathan and Winona LaDuke also ran for that office, but they are another story.

 

Dig Deeper:

First but not the Last:  Women Who Ran for President.” National Women’s History Museum online exhibit.

Women Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates:  A Selected List.” Rutgers University CAWP Presidential Watch.

The Women Who Ran for President.” Jo Freeman.

 

Dig Deeper (Individuals):

Victoria Claflin Woodhull (Falvey has many more books on Woodhull than these few listed here.)

Selected Writings of Victoria Woodhull:  Suffrage, Free Love, and Eugenics. (2010). Victoria C. Woodhull.

Free Woman:  The Life and Times of Victoria Woodhull. (1976). Marion Meade.

Notorious Victoria:  The Life of Victoria Woodhull, Uncensored. (1998). Mary Gabriel.

 

Margaret Chase Smith

Margaret Chase Smith:  Model Public Servant. (1998). Marlene Boyd Vallin.

No Place for a Woman:  A Life of Senator Margaret Chase Smith. (2000). Janann Sherman.

Politics of Conscience:  A Biography of Margaret Chase Smith. (1995). Patricia Ward Wallace.

 

Shirley Anita Chisholm

African-American Orators:  A Bio-Critical Sourcebook. (1996).

The Columbia Documentary History of American Women Since 1941. (2003)

 

Patsy Takemoto Mink

Distinguished Asian Americans:  A Biographical Dictionary. (1999).

 

Lenora Fulani

African-American Orators:  A Bio-Critical Sourcebook. (1996)

 

Elizabeth Hanford Dole

Elizabeth Hanford Dole:  Speaking from the Heart. (2004). Molly Meijer Wertheimer.

 

For help finding information about the other candidates, please contact our reference librarians: Merrill Stein resize 2Merrill.Stein – political science subject librarian or

 

 

 

CORRECTION: Merrill Stein is no longer the political science subject librarian.

 

Janice Headshot   Janice Bially Mattern – political science and data services librarian

Or

Jutta resize

 

Jutta Seibert, team leader – Academic Integration.


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Call: 2017 Westminster Institute for Advances Studies-International Research Fellowships in Critical Digital & Social Media Studies

Call: 2017 Westminster Institute for Advances Studies-International Research Fellowships in Critical Digital & Social Media Studies

https://www.westminster.ac.uk/news/2016/call-for-applications-wias-international-research-fellowships-in-critical-digital-and-social-media-studies-2017

http://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/AUN132/westminster-institute-for-advanced-studies-international-research-fellowships-in-critical-digital-and-social-media-studies-2017-call-for-applications/

The Westminster Institute for Advanced Studies (WIAS) www.westminster.ac.uk/wias is an academic space for independent critical thinking beyond borders. It is located at the University of Westminster in the heart of London. Prof Christian Fuchs is its Director. The WIAS’ research focus is critical digital and social media studies.

The Westminster Institute for Advanced Studies has an open call for international resarch fellows who during a 3 month stay in 2017 conduct critical studies of digital and social media’s role in society.

The WIAS aims to contribute to bringing about a paradigm shift from big data analytics to critical digital and social media research methods and theories. Digital and social media research at WIAS uses and develops critical theories, is profoundly theoretical, and discusses the political relevance and implications of the studied topics.

The WIAS’ Critical Digital and Social Media Studies Fellowship Programme is aimed at current and future research leaders, who engage in independent critical thinking. It enables them to undertake independent and collaborative research on original topics in a stimulating academic environment in London.

Funded scholarships are only awarded as a result of open calls. Priority will be given to well-defined projects. The regular scholarship duration is 3 months (start between 9 January and 1 May 2017). Later start dates are not possible.

Application deadline: Friday October 28, 2016

More information, details and application:

https://www.westminster.ac.uk/news/2016/call-for-applications-wias-international-research-fellowships-in-critical-digital-and-social-media-studies-2017


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Remembering 9/11 on Campus

Sunday, Sept. 11, is the fifteenth anniversary of 9/11/2001, the morning Islamic extremists hijacked four American airplanes. Two airplanes flew into the towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, one crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and the fourth crashed in a field near Shanksville in western Pennsylvania.

Villanova University lost fifteen alumni that day; they are commemorated in a stained glass window in Corr Hall Chapel. The window, installed in November 2006, was designed by the Rev. Richard G. Cannuli, OSA, ’73, an artist, professor and curator and director of the University Art Gallery. Vetrate Artistiche Toscane, a stained glass studio in Siena, Italy, created the window from Father Cannuli’s design.

On the left of the window is a panel depicting the Blessed Virgin Mary in prayer. The right panel shows the twin towers of the World Trade Center, the Pentagon and fields, the sites where the four planes crashed. At the bottom of this panel is list of the fifteen Villanovans who perished that day, fourteen in the World Trade Center and a flight attendant on United Airlines flight 175.

DSC_0016 resize

Full window

 

Right panel with Twin Towers, Pentagon, Pa. field and panel with alumni names

Right panel with Twin Towers, Pentagon, Pa. field and panel with alumni names

 

List of alumni who perished on 9/11

List of alumni who perished on 9/11

 

In addition to the permanent commemoration in Corr Chapel, Falvey Memorial Library has installed a small commemoration at the circulation desk.

Falvey's Commemoration

Falvey’s Commemoration

Villanova has not forgotten 9/11.

 

Photographs by Alice Bampton, Communications and Marketing Dept.

 


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Want to Know More About the Olympics? Here is the Place to Start

Rio 2016 jpgIf you read Merrill Stein’s recent blog, “Next Best Thing to Being There! Great Links to the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” or have been watching or reading the news about the summer Olympics and have questions, Falvey’s collection can provide answers. This “Dig Deeper” features only part of our collection of books about the Olympics. And don’t forget, our very knowledgeable reference librarians (Ask a Librarian) are here to help you find materials. Or you may visit their offices on the second floor of Falvey.

Dig Deeper:

History of the Ancient Games:

The Ancient Olympic Games” (1984)

The Ancient Olympic Games” (1966)

The Ancient Olympics” (2004)

The Story of the Olympic Games, 776 B.C.” (1973)

 

Women and the Olympic Games:

Grace and Glory:  A Century of Women in the Olympics” (1996)

Their Day in the Sun:  Women of the 1932 Olympics” (1996)

When the Girls Came Out to Play:  The Birth of American Sportswear” (2006)

Women’s Sport and Spectacle:  Gendered Television Coverage and the Olympic Games” (1998)

 

Other aspects of the Games:

The First Modern Olympics” (1976)

Global Olympics: Historical and Sociological Studies of the Modern Games ” (2005)

100 Greatest Moments in Olympic History” (1995)

All That Glitters Is Not Gold:  The Olympic Game” (1972)

Historical Dictionary of the Modern Olympic Movement” (1996)

 

 


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Next Best Thing to Being There! Great links to the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Rio Olympics resizeIt all began in 2009 when the “chance to bring the Olympics to a continent that had never hosted the Games worked in Rio’s favor. During its presentation, the bid team showed a graphic of the world and marked all the places that have held an Olympics. South America was glaringly bare.” – (http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/03/sports/03olympics.html?_r=0), (http://www.mapsofworld.com/sports/olympics/trivia/host-cities-of-olympics.html

Host city 600

Image source: Wikipedia

Host city motto – Um mundo novo – a new world (Portuguese)  Other Olympic related mottos also exist.

“Rio will become the first South American city to host the Summer Olympics [and Paralympics]. These will be the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first to be held entirely during the host country’s winter season (the 2000 games began on 15 September – five days before the Southern Hemisphere’s vernal equinox), the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, and the first since 2000 (and third overall) to be held in the Southern Hemisphere.” – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2016_Summer_Olympics

Olympic mascots have been a part of the games since about 1972, depending on who you ask. The games in Rio are no exception, as seen here, reported by the BBC.  The Rio mascots’ official home can be found at https://www.rio2016.com/mascots/#!home.

Mascots resize

Image source:  https://www.rio2016.com/mascots/#!home

Ahead of the Olympics, check here for key facts about the 206 participating countries in four venues. You can read about the games in at least four languages and follow the games here.  Follow the torch from here and learn its hidden secrets.  You can also get a Google street view of the games.

Maps resize

Image source:  http://www.bbc.com/sport/olympics/36084489

The competition venues will be clustered in four zones – Barra, Copacabana, Deodoro and Maracanã – and connected by a high-performance transport ring. Nearly half of the athletes will be able to reach their venues in less than 10 minutes, and almost 75 per cent will do so in less than 25 minutes.

Mystery and meaning resize

Mystery and meaning                     Image source:  http://rio2016olympicswiki.com/rio-2016-olympic-torch-unveiled-photos-videos/126/

 

NBC is providing a full schedule of the Olympics.  The official source of Olympic news is also available now and here you can download the full athletics timetable for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games.

See one view of how Olympic medal data can explain the world.

 

Featured stories and a Philadelphia connection:

 

PhilaU

 

 

 PhilaU Textile Engineer Mark Sunderland Designs Innovative Rowing Suits for Rio Olympics

 

 

 

symbol of hope

 

 

‘Symbol of Hope’: Refugee Team Named for Rio Olympics

 

 

first male swimmer

First male swimmer to make five Olympics

 

 

 

 

 Triple threatTriple threat at the Olympics

 

 

 

 

smartest camerasRio Olympics will have some of the smartest sports cameras ever

 

 

 

 

dopingTesting for Doping at Rio

 

 

 

 

metricsMetric minded – Countries that are more gender equal in important ways enjoy greater athletic success at the Olympic Games, an effect that holds not only for female but also for male athletes. – The robustness of the win–win effect. – (PsycINFO (ProQuest))

 

 

Google Earth resizeGoogle Street View of Rio will allow fans to follow the games closely.

 

 

 

 

Images  for the above list are located within the stories.

 

Gaming the Olympics! Design your own Olympic Games:

Create stories, games and animations and more.

 

Cautions:

Zika virus information from the World Health Organization.

CDC – current situation directives

A Harvard commentary.

 

Footnote to the games:

Future games news

 

Dig deeper

2016 Rio Summer OlympicsLexis Nexis Academic

Political Handbook of the World (Sage/CQ Press)

ProQuest Central

Latin American Periodicals Tables of Contents

Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI)

Brazil Arquivo Nacional

Historical Abstracts (EBSCO)

Olympic materials from the Falvey catalog

 

Merrill Stein resize 2Merrill Stein is the Geography/Psychology/Education librarian. Office:  Room 221. Phone:  610-519-4272.

 


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Elie Wiesel, 1928 – 2016

829px-Elie_Wiesel

Elie (Eliezer) Wiesel, Holocaust survivor, charismatic lecturer, professor, Nobel Prize for Peace winner and prolific author, died July 2 after a long illness. Wiesel, born in Romania to a family which spoke Yiddish, German, Hungarian and Romanian, was sent with his parents and sisters to a confinement ghetto in 1944 at age 15. From there the family was sent to Auschwitz where his mother and younger sister died. Wiesel and his father were sent to Buchenwald where his father died a few weeks before the United States Army liberated the concentration camp on April 11, 1945.

After World War II Wiesel studied at the Sorbonne in Paris and worked as a journalist for Israeli and French newspapers. He wrote his first book, a 900 page memoir about the Holocaust, in Yiddish. A shorter version was published in French in 1955 and in 1960 the English translation was published as Night. Night was eventually translated into 30 languages.

Wiesel came to the United States in 1956 where he continued to write, to be an activist and  became a college professor. He won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1986.

Dig Deeper:  Elie Wiesel

Elie Wiesel Foundation

Nobel Prize award speech

Wiesel as an author

CNN obituary

New York Times obituary

Washington Post obituary

Falvey’s holdings:  Books by and about Wiesel

 


Photo: Elie Wiesel, Professor of the Humanities, Boston University, USA speaks during the session ‘269 A New Agenda: Combining Efficiency and Human Dignity’ at the ‘Annual Meeting 2003’ of the World Economic Forum in Davos/Switzerland, January 28, 2003. Copyright by World Economic Forum swiss-image.ch/photo by Sebastian Deranges. Retrieved 7-6-16 from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Elie_Wiesel.jpg. 

 


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Brexit and the European Union

Brexit resized

 

The relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union has never been an easy one.  It took over 11 years from the first decision to apply for membership in 1961 to the 1973 legislation mandating membership.  By comparison, the referendum known as BREXIT, to leave the European Union, was swift, but the fall-out is likely to reverberate long into the future from the United Kingdom to Europe and beyond.

The Financial Times has posted a brief video explaining how the UK fit into the EU and VOX has posted a deck on what the BREXIT vote means. For other expert and concise explanations of how the European Union developed see the CQ Political Handbook of the World Online  or The European Union: A Very Short Introduction.

For more in-depth analyses of Britain and the EU with regard to integration, monetary policy, competition, nationalism, social policy, migration, & political developments our print and ebook collection has much to offer.  Search Books & More for “European Union” AND Britain or “European Union” AND “United Kingdom” to find books like these.

Stranger in Europe resize

A Stranger in Europe:  Britain and the EU From Thatcher to Blair

 

 

 

 

Cover 2 resizeBritish National Identity and Opposition to Membership of Europe, 1961-63:  The Anti-Marketeers

 

 

 

The Official History of Britain and the European Community from Rejection to Referendum, 1963-1975

For the best up to the minute coverage on the repercussions of the BREXIT vote, authoritative news & analysis can be found on news outlets.  The Financial Times (sign up for a Villanova subscription), The Guardian, The Economist and Foreign Affairs are top picks.  If you hit the paywall limit for the publications, switch to free access via the library Journal Finder.  Other economic, global commentary and information can be found at the London School of Economics, Project Syndicate and Bruegel.  Of course the Official Website of the EU will have unfiltered news about developments.


Linda Hauck, Business librarian, provided this information with input from Merrill Stein, Geography and Political Science liaison team leader.

Linda Hauck resize 2Linda Hauck, Business Librarian. 610-519-8744. Falvey, room 222.

 

 

 

 

Merrill Stein resize 2Merrill Stein, Geography and Political Science team leader, Assessment team leader. 610-519-4272. Falvey, room 221.

 

 


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Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence resized

The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription

IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

The 56 signatures on the Declaration appear in the positions indicated:

Column 1
Georgia:    Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton

Column 2
North Carolina:   William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn
South Carolina:  Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton

Column 3
Massachusetts:  John Hancock
Maryland:  Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Virginia:  George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton

Column 4
Pennsylvania:  Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross
Delaware:  Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean

Column 5
New York:  William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris
New Jersey:  Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark

Column 6
New Hampshire:  Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple

Massachusetts:  Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge Gerry
Rhode Island:  Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery
Connecticut:  Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott
New Hampshire:  Matthew Thornton

 

 

 

 


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Celebrating the Glorious Fourth

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The United States celebrates its independence from Great Britain on the 4th of July, the day in 1776 on which the delegates to the Continental Congress ratified the Declaration of Independence.JUTTA-BB

We know from an article which appeared in The Pennsylvania Evening Post on July 5, 1777, that the first Independence Day anniversary was celebrated with the discharge of thirteen cannons in the port of Philadelphia in honor of the original thirteen states. The ships were decorated in red, white and blue streamers. Congress gathered for an elegant dinner to which the president and numerous other guests of honor were invited.

A captured band of Hessian musicians played suitable tunes interrupted by repeated toasts. Bonfires and fireworks lit up the evening sky, and the peals of bells closed out the day.

Not much has changed since then. Food, fireworks, parades and the national colors are still at the center of today’s celebrations, and the Glorious Fourth continues to capture the national imagination. The Library has a wealth of information in both print and electronic form for those who would like to learn more about the history of the Declaration of Independence.

On our shelves:

Andrew Burnstein’s America’s Jubilee takes a critical look at the fifty year anniversary of independence in 1826, which also happens to be the day on which two of the Declaration’s signers, frenemies John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, died. William Hogeland takes a close look at the nine weeks leading up to July 4, 1776, in his Declaration, and Alan Dershowitz follows the sources which influenced Jefferson’s text in America Declares Independence.

David Armitage’s The Declaration of Independence: A Global History delineates the impact of the U.S. Declaration as it resonated around the world. Armitage looks at over one hundred declarations of independence to demonstrate the global influence of the U.S. Declaration, and Alexander Tsesis’ For Liberty and Equality synthesizes the continuing impact of the Declaration on American life.

Online:

Noteworthy among Falvey’s digital primary-source collections are the American Founding Era collection which contains the papers of George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James and Dolley Madison, and Alexander Hamilton; the American State Papers with the executive and legislative documents of the first fourteen U.S. Congresses; and America’s Historical Newspapers, which includes early American newspapers back to 1690.

Happy Independence Day from the staff at Falvey Memorial Library!

 

Jutta 60x80Jutta Seibert is the team leader for Academic Integration as well as the coordinator of the liaison team to the departments of history, sociology and criminal justice.


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Last Modified: July 2, 2016