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Is Hillary Rodham Clinton the First Female Presidential Candidate?

Image courtesy of nbcnews.com

Image courtesy of nbcnews.com

Today, Oct. 26, is Hillary Rodham Clinton’s sixty ninth birthday. Clinton served as a U.S. Senator from 2001-2009; she was the first lady, married to President Bill Clinton, from 1993-2001. She first ran for president in 2008, but lost the nomination to Barack Obama. Now the 2016 Democratic candidate for president, she has attracted attention for numerous reasons including the fact that she is a female running for the office that has always been held by a male. But is she the first female to run for the office of president of the United States? In recent times two women have been nominated for vice president:  Sarah Palin as the Republican candidate in 2008 and Geraldine Ferraro as the Democratic candidate in 1984. But what about presidential candidates?

Detail of Mathew Brady photograph

Detail of Mathew Brady photo

In 1872 Victoria Claflin Woodhull (1838-1927) ran for president as the candidate for the Equal Rights Party. She is the first woman to run for the office. Her opposing candidates were Ulysses S. Grant, Republican candidate and former Civil War Union general, and Horace Greeley, Democratic candidate. Although she obviously lost the race, she did found her own newspaper, she fought for women’s rights and she owned a Wall Street investment firm – all impressive accomplishments for a woman in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood (1830-1917), a lawyer, ran for president twice (1884 and 1888) as the Equal Rights Party candidate. In 1884 she ran against Grover Cleveland, Democrat, and James G. Blaine, Republican. In 1888 she ran against Cleveland (Democrat) and Benjamin Harrison (Republican). Lockwood was the first woman lawyer to practice before the Supreme Court; she drafted the law which was passed by Congress enabling women to do so.

US Senate photo

US Senate photo

Margaret Chase Smith (1897-1995) is the first woman nominated for president by a major political party; she was a Republican candidate in 1964, but removed her name from the ballot after the first round of voting. Smith served in the House of Representatives for four terms beginning in 1940. She became a senator in 1948 and served there for four terms.

 

 

Image from Library of Congress

Image from Library of Congress

Shirley Anita Chisholm (1924-2005), the first African American woman to run for president, actively campaigning nationwide as a Democratic candidate. At the 1972 Democratic National Convention she received more than 150 delegate votes. Chisholm is the first African American woman to serve in Congress; she served from 1969 until 1968.

 

 

US Congress photograph

US Congress photograph

The same year-1972- as Chisholm ran for president, Patsy Takemoto Mink (1927-2002) ran as an anti-war candidate in the Oregon Democratic presidential primary election. Mink, a Japanese American lawyer from Hawaii, served in Congress 1965-1977 and 1990-2002.

 

 

Ellen McCormack resizeEllen McCormack (1926-2011) ran for president twice, 1976 and 1980, as an anti-abortion candidate for the Democratic party. McCormack was the first female candidate to qualify for federal campaign matching funds (which she mostly used to fund anti-abortion television commercials).

 

 Johnson resizeSonia Johnson (b.1936), an English professor and a Mormon (Church of Latter Day Saints), organized “Mormons for ERA (Equal Rights Amendment)” with other women after the Mormon Church opposed the passage of the ERA. Congress had passed the ERA and sent it to state legislatures for their ratifications. The church then excommunicated her. In 1984 two political parties, the U.S. Citizens Party and the Peace and Freedom Party, nominated Johnson, making her the first third-party candidate to qualify for matching funds, but she found it difficult to get on the primary election ballots in most states and her campaign failed.

US Congress portrait

US Congress portrait

Four years later in 1988, Patricia S. Schroeder (b.1940), a Democrat and lawyer, began her campaign for the presidency. She soon dropped out of the race before the primary elections because she was unable to raise sufficient funds.  Schroeder was a Congress woman; she ultimately served for twenty four years.

 

 

NWHM photograph

NWHM photograph

Lenora Fulani (b.1950), an African American born in Chester, Pa., ran for president twice, in 1988 and 1992, as the candidate of the New Alliance Party. She and the New Alliance Party were interested in ending our two-party system. In 1998 Fulani became “the first woman and the first African American to appear on the ballot in all fifty states and the District of Columbia.” Although the number of votes she received was small they were, nevertheless, the most votes received by a female presidential candidate in a general election. In 1992 Fulani ran again; this was the year that Bill Clinton won the presidential election.

 

US Senate photograph

US Senate photograph

Elizabeth Hanford Dole (b. 1936), with a MA in education and a law degree, was president of the American Red Cross from 1991-January 1999; she resigned to run for the Republican presidential nomination, but dropped out in October 1999. Dole campaigned for her husband, Robert Dole, during his campaign for the vice presidency in 1976 and his two attempts at the presidency, 1979 and 1987. Elizabeth Hanford Dole served three terms as the first female senator from North Carolina, 2002-2009.

 

Braun resizeCarol Moseley Braun (b. 1947) is a lawyer who worked in the Chicago offices of the Justice Department. She is the first African American woman to be elected (1992) to the U.S. Senate from Illinois. There she was the first woman member of the Senate Finance Committee and the Judiciary Committee.  Before becoming a Senator she had served in the Illinois House of Representatives. President Bill Clinton appointed her as ambassador to New Zealand, Samoa and the Cook Islands; this role ended when George W. Bush became president in 2001.  In September 2003 she announced that she was running for president, but had difficulty raising campaign funds and dropped out of the race in January 2004.

US govt. photograph

US govt. photograph

Michele Bachmann (b.1956) made a brief run for the presidency in 2012. A lawyer, she is a conservative activist and a founder of the Tea Party Caucus in Congress in 2010. Bachmann was elected to the Minnesota state senate in 2000; in 2006 she was elected to the U.S. Congress and became a prominent critic of President Obama. Bachmann is the first Republican Congresswoman for Minnesota. She announced her presidential candidacy in 2011, but her campaign failed to achieve the nomination. Her term in Congress ended in January 2015.

CNN photograph

CNN photograph

Carly Fiorina (b. 1954) is a business woman, best known for her role as the CEO of Hewlett-Packard, where in 1999 she became the first woman to head a Fortune 50 business. She was forced to resign from HP and then served in a variety of government positions. As a Republican Fiorina ran for the U.S. Senate in 2010, but lost to the Democratic candidate, Barbara Boxer. In May 2015 she announced that she would run for the 2016 presidential nomination. However, as we know, she lost.

This brings us to the current candidate for the presidency, Hillary Rodham Clinton. Clinton, a lawyer like many of the previous candidates, ran for president in 2008 and lost the nomination to Barack Obama. She is running again as the Democratic candidate; her Republican opponent is Donald Trump.

There have also been women vice presidential candidates. In addition to Sarah Palin and Geraldine Ferraro, Frances “Sissy” Farenthold, Toni Nathan and Winona LaDuke also ran for that office, but they are another story.

 

Dig Deeper:

First but not the Last:  Women Who Ran for President.” National Women’s History Museum online exhibit.

Women Presidential and Vice Presidential Candidates:  A Selected List.” Rutgers University CAWP Presidential Watch.

The Women Who Ran for President.” Jo Freeman.

 

Dig Deeper (Individuals):

Victoria Claflin Woodhull (Falvey has many more books on Woodhull than these few listed here.)

Selected Writings of Victoria Woodhull:  Suffrage, Free Love, and Eugenics. (2010). Victoria C. Woodhull.

Free Woman:  The Life and Times of Victoria Woodhull. (1976). Marion Meade.

Notorious Victoria:  The Life of Victoria Woodhull, Uncensored. (1998). Mary Gabriel.

 

Margaret Chase Smith

Margaret Chase Smith:  Model Public Servant. (1998). Marlene Boyd Vallin.

No Place for a Woman:  A Life of Senator Margaret Chase Smith. (2000). Janann Sherman.

Politics of Conscience:  A Biography of Margaret Chase Smith. (1995). Patricia Ward Wallace.

 

Shirley Anita Chisholm

African-American Orators:  A Bio-Critical Sourcebook. (1996).

The Columbia Documentary History of American Women Since 1941. (2003)

 

Patsy Takemoto Mink

Distinguished Asian Americans:  A Biographical Dictionary. (1999).

 

Lenora Fulani

African-American Orators:  A Bio-Critical Sourcebook. (1996)

 

Elizabeth Hanford Dole

Elizabeth Hanford Dole:  Speaking from the Heart. (2004). Molly Meijer Wertheimer.

 

For help finding information about the other candidates, please contact our reference librarians: Merrill Stein resize 2Merrill.Stein – political science subject librarian or

 

 

 

CORRECTION: Merrill Stein is no longer the political science subject librarian.

 

Janice Headshot   Janice Bially Mattern – political science and data services librarian

Or

Jutta resize

 

Jutta Seibert, team leader – Academic Integration.


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Call: 2017 Westminster Institute for Advances Studies-International Research Fellowships in Critical Digital & Social Media Studies

Call: 2017 Westminster Institute for Advances Studies-International Research Fellowships in Critical Digital & Social Media Studies

https://www.westminster.ac.uk/news/2016/call-for-applications-wias-international-research-fellowships-in-critical-digital-and-social-media-studies-2017

http://www.jobs.ac.uk/job/AUN132/westminster-institute-for-advanced-studies-international-research-fellowships-in-critical-digital-and-social-media-studies-2017-call-for-applications/

The Westminster Institute for Advanced Studies (WIAS) www.westminster.ac.uk/wias is an academic space for independent critical thinking beyond borders. It is located at the University of Westminster in the heart of London. Prof Christian Fuchs is its Director. The WIAS’ research focus is critical digital and social media studies.

The Westminster Institute for Advanced Studies has an open call for international resarch fellows who during a 3 month stay in 2017 conduct critical studies of digital and social media’s role in society.

The WIAS aims to contribute to bringing about a paradigm shift from big data analytics to critical digital and social media research methods and theories. Digital and social media research at WIAS uses and develops critical theories, is profoundly theoretical, and discusses the political relevance and implications of the studied topics.

The WIAS’ Critical Digital and Social Media Studies Fellowship Programme is aimed at current and future research leaders, who engage in independent critical thinking. It enables them to undertake independent and collaborative research on original topics in a stimulating academic environment in London.

Funded scholarships are only awarded as a result of open calls. Priority will be given to well-defined projects. The regular scholarship duration is 3 months (start between 9 January and 1 May 2017). Later start dates are not possible.

Application deadline: Friday October 28, 2016

More information, details and application:

https://www.westminster.ac.uk/news/2016/call-for-applications-wias-international-research-fellowships-in-critical-digital-and-social-media-studies-2017


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Next Best Thing to Being There! Great links to the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


Rio Olympics resizeIt all began in 2009 when the “chance to bring the Olympics to a continent that had never hosted the Games worked in Rio’s favor. During its presentation, the bid team showed a graphic of the world and marked all the places that have held an Olympics. South America was glaringly bare.” – (http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/03/sports/03olympics.html?_r=0), (http://www.mapsofworld.com/sports/olympics/trivia/host-cities-of-olympics.html

Host city 600

Image source: Wikipedia

Host city motto – Um mundo novo – a new world (Portuguese)  Other Olympic related mottos also exist.

“Rio will become the first South American city to host the Summer Olympics [and Paralympics]. These will be the first games to be held in a Portuguese-speaking country, the first to be held entirely during the host country’s winter season (the 2000 games began on 15 September – five days before the Southern Hemisphere’s vernal equinox), the first since 1968 to be held in Latin America, and the first since 2000 (and third overall) to be held in the Southern Hemisphere.” – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2016_Summer_Olympics

Olympic mascots have been a part of the games since about 1972, depending on who you ask. The games in Rio are no exception, as seen here, reported by the BBC.  The Rio mascots’ official home can be found at https://www.rio2016.com/mascots/#!home.

Mascots resize

Image source:  https://www.rio2016.com/mascots/#!home

Ahead of the Olympics, check here for key facts about the 206 participating countries in four venues. You can read about the games in at least four languages and follow the games here.  Follow the torch from here and learn its hidden secrets.  You can also get a Google street view of the games.

Maps resize

Image source:  http://www.bbc.com/sport/olympics/36084489

The competition venues will be clustered in four zones – Barra, Copacabana, Deodoro and Maracanã – and connected by a high-performance transport ring. Nearly half of the athletes will be able to reach their venues in less than 10 minutes, and almost 75 per cent will do so in less than 25 minutes.

Mystery and meaning resize

Mystery and meaning                     Image source:  http://rio2016olympicswiki.com/rio-2016-olympic-torch-unveiled-photos-videos/126/

 

NBC is providing a full schedule of the Olympics.  The official source of Olympic news is also available now and here you can download the full athletics timetable for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games.

See one view of how Olympic medal data can explain the world.

 

Featured stories and a Philadelphia connection:

 

PhilaU

 

 

 PhilaU Textile Engineer Mark Sunderland Designs Innovative Rowing Suits for Rio Olympics

 

 

 

symbol of hope

 

 

‘Symbol of Hope’: Refugee Team Named for Rio Olympics

 

 

first male swimmer

First male swimmer to make five Olympics

 

 

 

 

 Triple threatTriple threat at the Olympics

 

 

 

 

smartest camerasRio Olympics will have some of the smartest sports cameras ever

 

 

 

 

dopingTesting for Doping at Rio

 

 

 

 

metricsMetric minded – Countries that are more gender equal in important ways enjoy greater athletic success at the Olympic Games, an effect that holds not only for female but also for male athletes. – The robustness of the win–win effect. – (PsycINFO (ProQuest))

 

 

Google Earth resizeGoogle Street View of Rio will allow fans to follow the games closely.

 

 

 

 

Images  for the above list are located within the stories.

 

Gaming the Olympics! Design your own Olympic Games:

Create stories, games and animations and more.

 

Cautions:

Zika virus information from the World Health Organization.

CDC – current situation directives

A Harvard commentary.

 

Footnote to the games:

Future games news

 

Dig deeper

2016 Rio Summer OlympicsLexis Nexis Academic

Political Handbook of the World (Sage/CQ Press)

ProQuest Central

Latin American Periodicals Tables of Contents

Hispanic American Periodicals Index (HAPI)

Brazil Arquivo Nacional

Historical Abstracts (EBSCO)

Olympic materials from the Falvey catalog

 

Merrill Stein resize 2Merrill Stein is the Geography/Psychology/Education librarian. Office:  Room 221. Phone:  610-519-4272.

 


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Brexit and the European Union

Brexit resized

 

The relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union has never been an easy one.  It took over 11 years from the first decision to apply for membership in 1961 to the 1973 legislation mandating membership.  By comparison, the referendum known as BREXIT, to leave the European Union, was swift, but the fall-out is likely to reverberate long into the future from the United Kingdom to Europe and beyond.

The Financial Times has posted a brief video explaining how the UK fit into the EU and VOX has posted a deck on what the BREXIT vote means. For other expert and concise explanations of how the European Union developed see the CQ Political Handbook of the World Online  or The European Union: A Very Short Introduction.

For more in-depth analyses of Britain and the EU with regard to integration, monetary policy, competition, nationalism, social policy, migration, & political developments our print and ebook collection has much to offer.  Search Books & More for “European Union” AND Britain or “European Union” AND “United Kingdom” to find books like these.

Stranger in Europe resize

A Stranger in Europe:  Britain and the EU From Thatcher to Blair

 

 

 

 

Cover 2 resizeBritish National Identity and Opposition to Membership of Europe, 1961-63:  The Anti-Marketeers

 

 

 

The Official History of Britain and the European Community from Rejection to Referendum, 1963-1975

For the best up to the minute coverage on the repercussions of the BREXIT vote, authoritative news & analysis can be found on news outlets.  The Financial Times (sign up for a Villanova subscription), The Guardian, The Economist and Foreign Affairs are top picks.  If you hit the paywall limit for the publications, switch to free access via the library Journal Finder.  Other economic, global commentary and information can be found at the London School of Economics, Project Syndicate and Bruegel.  Of course the Official Website of the EU will have unfiltered news about developments.


Linda Hauck, Business librarian, provided this information with input from Merrill Stein, Geography and Political Science liaison team leader.

Linda Hauck resize 2Linda Hauck, Business Librarian. 610-519-8744. Falvey, room 222.

 

 

 

 

Merrill Stein resize 2Merrill Stein, Geography and Political Science team leader, Assessment team leader. 610-519-4272. Falvey, room 221.

 

 


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Genealogy Made Easy: HeritageQuest & Ancestry.com

Genealogical research has a passionate following outside of the academic world, a fact that is reflected in the often impressive genealogy collections of public libraries.  Now Villanova faculty members are planning to add genealogical research projects to their undergraduate history syllabi.  Welcome to the digital new world of genealogy: like in so many other areas of research, the time of dusty old books and reels of microfilm has passed and online databases have taken their place. 

Ancestry.com and HeritageQuest are two of the major genealogical research tools currently on the market.  Both are available on trial basis until March 15 to Villanova faculty and students.  Discover a wealth of genealogical materials such as U.S. census data (1790-1930), church records, county census data, immigration ship lists, passport applications, Freedman’s Bank records, Revolutionary War pension applications, even international data from the UK, Canada and Germany.

I strongly encourage you to evaluate both resources and send me feedback about their usefulness in the classroom. For more detailed information about the contents of ancestry library edition and HeritageQuest Online, please consult the comparison chart provided by Proquest.  Contact me directly (jutta.seibert@villanova.edu) or post your comments online.

 


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Victorian Life through the Lens of 19th Century Magazines

uk_perFalvey is delighted with its acquisition of 19th Century UK Periodicals.

Series 1 of this collection, entitled New Readerships, consists of  women’s and children’s periodicals, as well as humor and leisure/sport magazines and chronicles the rise of modern magazine culture. Featured are women’s magazines, such as Hearth and Home and the Women’s Penny Paper, satirical titles such as Punch and Fun, magazines aimed at the young, such as Boy’s Own Paper, as well as a number of sports and leisure magazines.

Series 2 of 19th Century UK Periodicals, entitled Empire, includes the complete run of over 90 magazines. Topics range from the abolition of the slave trade within the British Empire in 1807 to the first Opium Wars (1839-42) and the “scramble for Africa” in the 1880s and 1890s.

Records to all magazines in the collection will be added to the Library’s online catalog. Each record will have a link to individual titles. Links to the digital collection itself appear on the Databases A-Z list (under N), as well as on the primary sources tab of the history subject guide.

Comments? Please let us know what you think.


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Last Modified: May 18, 2009